Anthropology Final Exam Review

Anthropology Final Exam Review - Anthropology Final Exam...

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Anthropology Final Exam Review 1. Primate morphology and ecology What Study Primates? They are the closest relatives; provide valuable insights into early humans, diversity within order of primates help us understand the 168 species Primates as Mammals Enlarged braincase/cranial capacity Single mandibular bone on each side Endothermic: higher metabolic rate feeding behavior and diet Liver birth and dependency on mother’s mile in infancy (mammary glands) Mothers carry infants to term versus egg-laying marsupial pouches Social behavior—dens Primate Ecology The total amount of energy required depends on BMR (rate of energy expenditure at rest), active metabolism, growth rates, and reproductive rates Primates rely on at least 1 food high in protein and another high in carbs: PROSIMIANS protein from insects, carbs from gum and fruit; MOKEYS protein from insects, carbs from fruit SIZE: Insectivores < Frugivores < Folivores Smaller animals have higher energy requirements and require small amounts of high quality food that can be process quickly Primate Ecology (Activity Pattern) Nocturnal suggest that primates evolved from nocturnal ancestry All primates have home ranges but only some species are territorial-defending their home ranges Resource defense: occurs when resources aren’t only limited but also clumped and defendable Mate defense: also plays a role in evolution of territorial in some primate species Predation is believed to be a significant source of mortality among primates but direct evidence of predation is normally hard to obtain (predation varies from 1- 15%) Smaller bodied primates are more vulnerable than larger one and immature ones are more vulnerable than adults Primates have evolved an array of defenses against predators Morphology and behavior (example: nocturnal, social groups, etc) Brain and Cranium Convergent orbits Stereoscopic vision Large brain, body size ratio
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Foramen magnum located more interiorly Differentiated dentition Postcranial Skeleton Collar bone present, 5 digits, long tail Some degree of opposability Divergent big toe and thumb Grasp vertical substrates General Features Complex and variable social organization (large groups) Strong mother-infant bond High degree of intelligence (observational learning) Usually one offspring with a long period of growth Restricted to tropical areas (usually) Hominin versus Hominoid Hominoid: Members of the superfamily Hominoidea, extant members are the lesser apes (gibbons) and great apes Hominin: Member of the tribe Hominini, chimpanzees and humans Taxonomy of Primates: Prosimians: ancestral to monkeys, apes and humans, only primates native to Madagascar, and are also found in SE Asia Anthropoidea: monkeys and apes Catarrhini: OWM and apes Hominoidea: super family of lesser apes and great apes Hominidae: great apes (orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees)
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Anthropology Final Exam Review - Anthropology Final Exam...

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