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PSYC 4520 Humanistic Psychology Notes.pdf - Humanistic...

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Humanistic PsychologyAbraham MaslowKey PointsApproached the study of personality by focusing on subjectiveexperiences, free will, and the innate drive towards “self-actualization”Expanded the field of humanistic psychology to include an explanation ofhow human needs change throughout an individual’s lifespan, and howthese needs influence the development of personalityRanks human needs from the most basic physical needs to the mostadvanced needs of self-actualization. A person mustacquire and mastereach level of need before proceeding to the next need.Maslow studied the personalities of self-actualizers and found they hadmany things in common; he believed self-actualizers indicate acoherentpersonality syndromeand represent optimal psychological health andfunctioningTheoryMaslow’s HumanismAs a leader of humanistic psychology, Abraham Maslow approached thestudy of personality psychology by focusing on subjective experiences andfree willHe was mainly concerned with an individual’s innate drive towardsself-actualization - a state of fulfillment in which a person is achieving athis/her highest level of capability.Maslow positioned his work as a vital complement to that of FreudResearchingIn his research, Maslow studied the personalities of people who heconsidered to be healthy, creative, and productive.Found that such people share similar characteristics - such as being open,creative, loving, spontaneous, compassionate, concerned for others, andaccepting themselves
Hierarchy of NeedsMost well known for his hierarchy of needs theory - where he proposes thathuman beings have certain needs in common and that these needs mustbe met in a certain orderThese needs range from the most basic physiological needs for survivaland higher level self-actualization and transcendence needsMaslow’s hierarchy is most often presented via pyramid with the largestneeds at the bottom and the smallest at the topEach layer of the pyramid must be fulfilled before moving up the pyramid tohigher needs, and this process is continued throughout the lifespanLevelsBottom: physiologicalBreathing, food, water, sleep, homeostasis, excretionSecond level: safetySecurity of: body, employment, resources, morality, family, health,propertyThird: love/belongingFriendship, family, sexual intimacyFourth: esteemSelf esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of/by othersFifth: self-actualizationMorality, creativity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance offactsPhysiological NeedsThese include the needs we have for oxygen, water, protein, sugar,calcium, and other minerals and vitaminsThey also include the need to maintain a pH balanceSafety and Security NeedsWhen the physiological needs are taken care of, the second layer emergesBecome increasingly interested in finding safe circumstances, stability, andprotectionYou might develop a need for structure, order, and some limits.
Looking at it negatively, you become concerned with your fears and

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