4.NatureNurture-MM2013.ppt

55 culture and child rearing 56 culture and child

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Unformatted text preview: . We share the same genetic profile, life cycle, capacity for language, and biological needs. Based on genetic makeup, males and females are alike, since the majority of our inherited genes (45 chromosomes are unisex) are similar. Copyright Steve Reehl Males and females differ biologically in body fat, muscle, height, onset of puberty, and life expectancy. 59 60 10 Gender Differences in Aggression Gender and Social Power Men express themselves and behave in more aggressive ways than do women. This aggression gender gap appears in many cultures and at various ages. In most societies, men are socially dominant and are perceived as such. In males, the nature of this aggression is physical. In 2005, men accounted for 84% of the governing parliaments. 61 62 Gender Differences and Connectedness Biology of Sex Young and old, women form more connections (friendships) with people than do men. Men emphasize freedom and self- reliance. Biological sex is determined by the twenty- third pair of chromosomes. If the pair is XX, a female is produced. If the pair is XY, a male child is produced. Dex Image/ GeYy Images Oliver Eltinger/ Zefa/ Corbis 63 Sexual Differentiation 64 Sexual Differentiation In the mother’s womb, the male fetus is exposed to testosterone (because of the Y chromosome), which leads to the development of male genitalia. Sexual differentiation is not only biological, but also psychological and social. If low levels of testosterone are released in the uterus, the result is a female. However, genes and hormones play a very important role in defining gender, especially in altering the brain and influencing gender differences as a result. 65 66 11 Gender Roles Gender Roles: Theories Our culture shapes our gender roles — expectations of how men and women are supposed to behave. Gender Identity — means how a person views himself or herself in terms of gender. 67 1.  Gender Schema Theory suggests that we learn a cultural “recipe” of how to be a male or a female, which influences our gender-  based perceptions and behaviors. 2.  Social Learning Theory proposes that we learn gender behavior like any other behavior—reinforcement, punishment, and observation. 68 Reflections on Nature and Nurture 69 12...
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