4.NatureNurture-MM2013

Data based on 37 cultures 42 7 critiquing the

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Unformatted text preview: ic determinism and undercuts morality in establishing society. Evolutionary psychologists remind us how we have adapted, but do not dictate how we ought to be. Where genders are unequal, gender preferences are wide, but when they are closely equal, preferences narrow down. Males and females are more alike than different, and if we study these differences we can establish their causes. 43 Parents and Peers 44 Prenatal Environment Parents and Early Experiences We have looked at how genes influence our developmental differences. What about the environment? How do our early experiences, our family, our community and our culture affects these differences? Identical twins who share the same placenta (b) are more alike than those who do not (a), suggesting prenatal influences on psychological traits. We begin with the prenatal environment. 45 Experience and Brain Development Early postnatal experiences affect brain development. Rosenzweig et al. (1984) showed that rats raised in enriched environments developed thicker cortices than those in impoverished environment. Experience and Faculties Early experiences during development in humans shows remarkable improvements in music, languages and the arts. Courtesy of C. Brune 47 46 48 8 Brain Development and Adulthood Parental influence is largely genetic. This support is essential in nurturing children. However, other socializing factors also play an important role. Brain development does not stop when we reach adulthood. Throughout our life, brain tissue continues to grow and change. Miquel L. Fairbanks Both hotos courtesy of Avi Kani and Leslie Ungerleider, National Institue of Mental Health A well- learned finger- tapping task leads to more motor cortical neurons (right) than baseline. Parental Influence 49 Peer Influence Although raised in the same family, some children are greater risk takers. 50 Cultural Influences Chi...
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