Unformatted text preview: ic determinism
and undercuts morality in establishing society. Evolutionary psychologists remind us how we have
adapted, but do not dictate how we ought to be. Where genders are unequal, gender preferences are
wide, but when they are closely equal, preferences
narrow down. Males and females are more alike than different, and if
we study these differences we can establish their
causes. 43 Parents and Peers 44 Prenatal Environment Parents and Early Experiences
We have looked at how genes inﬂuence our developmental diﬀerences. What about the environment? How do our early experiences, our family, our community and our culture aﬀects these diﬀerences? Identical twins who share the same placenta (b) are more alike than those who do not (a), suggesting prenatal inﬂuences on psychological traits. We begin with the prenatal environment.
45 Experience and Brain Development
Early postnatal experiences aﬀect brain development. Rosenzweig et al. (1984) showed that rats raised in enriched environments developed thicker cortices than those in impoverished environment. Experience and Faculties
Early experiences during development in humans shows remarkable improvements in music, languages and the arts. Courtesy of C. Brune 47 46 48 8 Brain Development and Adulthood Parental inﬂuence is largely genetic. This support is essential in nurturing children. However, other socializing factors also play an important role. Brain development does not stop when we reach adulthood. Throughout our life, brain tissue continues to grow and change. Miquel L. Fairbanks Both hotos courtesy of Avi Kani and Leslie
Ungerleider, National Institue of Mental Health A well- learned ﬁnger- tapping task leads to
more motor cortical neurons (right) than baseline. Parental Inﬂuence 49 Peer Inﬂuence Although raised in the same family,
some children are greater risk takers. 50 Cultural Inﬂuences Chi...
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This document was uploaded on 03/01/2014 for the course PSY 120 at Purdue.
- Summer '08