MS Neuro.docx - Trinity University of Asia St. Luke’s...

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CuteTrinity University of AsiaSt. Luke’s College of NursingMEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING [NCM 116]NEUROLOGY NURSINGCONCEPTMODULE I: ANATOMY ANDPHYSIOLOGY OF NERVOUS SYSTEM,NEUROLOGIC ASSESSMENT &NEUROLOGIC DIAGNOSTICEXAMINATIONA. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OFNERVOUS SYSTEMNeuronsPrimary functionalunit of nervoussystemCharacteristics:Excitability –creation ofnew impulse –actionpotentialsConductivity –transmissionof impulseInfluence –affect othercells such asmuscles cells.Consist of the following:Cell bodyAxonDendritesSynapsesSchwann CellsTypes and Action of Neuronsa.Sensory Inputb.Integrationc.Motor OutputIf the axon or dendrites are damaged,it will bereplacedas long as the cell body and neurolemmaareundamaged.PNS nerves have a higher chance of success inregeneration as compared to CNSNerve ImpulsesAction PotentialsNeurotransmittersExcitatoryInhibitoryAcetylcholineCatecholaminesNorepinephrineEpinephrineGlutamateDopamineGABASerotoninCentral Nervous System: Spinal CordContinuous to brain stem and exits to foramenmagnum.Providesneuron andsynapticnetwork.ControlsbodymovementCarriessensory andmotorinformation.Protected by meninges, cerebrospinal fluid andadipose tissuePage1of10
Hornscomposed of gray matter.Posterior – afferent nerve fiber (sensory)Anterior – efferent nerve fiber (motor)Nerve tracts – composed of white matter.Ascending tract – sensory pathwayDescending tract – motor pathwayReflex Arc – involuntary responses to stimuliSpinal pathways are named based on the point oforigin and destination.Spinothalamic tract – carries from pain andtemperature sensation to the thalamus forregulationSpinocerebellar tract – Carries informationfrom the muscles to the cerebellum forcoordination of movement.Central Nervous System: BrainCerebrumTwo hemispheres: right and left hemisphereBrainstemMidbrainPonsMedulla OblongataCerebellumLocated in the posterior part of the cranialfossa and below the occipital lobeFacilitate the following:Coordinate muscle movement (voluntary)EquilibriumMuscle toneCentral Nervous System: MeningesConsist of three protective membranes thatencapsulates brain and spinal cordDura materArachnoid layerPia materDuramaterOutermostlayerBetween theskullandthebrainArachnoid layer – delicate membrane that is locatedbetween dura mater and pia materIt contains the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Subarachnoid space – the space between thesubarachnoid and pia mater and contains CSFPia materInnermost layerVascular membraneCentral Nervous System: VentriclesFour ventriclesThese communicate between the subarachnoidspaces, and circulate CSFCentral Nervous System: CSFLocated within the subarachnoid spaceProvides cushion to the brain and spinal cordPromotes exchange of nutrients and wasteCSF is being formed in the choroid plexus

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Spring
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Cerebrospinal fluid

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