These ideas are the fundamentals of thermodynamics

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Unformatted text preview: ated hydrochloric acid •  formaAon of CH4 and O2 molecules from CO2 and H2O at room temperature and 1 atm pressure Most important quanAty •  Thermodynamic quanAty showing spontaneity is the change in Gibb’s free energy, ΔG •  If ΔG is numerically less than zero, process is spontaneous. •  These ideas are the fundamentals of thermodynamics which surpass any one applicaAon of chemistry. What is ΔG and how is it different than K? •  Has energy units •  Represents the maximum amount of (nonexpansion) work that the system could do, a driving force •  Depends on actual concentraAon (work of vinegar to clean metal vs use of concentrated H2SO4) –  Therefore Q must be involved somewhere, too! •  Look at some equaAons: (R = 8.314 J/mol K) ΔG° =  ­RT ln K ΔG = ΔG° + RT ln Q = RT ln (Q/K) ΔG° is the driving force when Q = standard condiAons Standard condiAons •  SoluAons have a concentraAon of 1 M. •  Solids and...
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