Parasitism one benefits one harmed 2 mutualism both

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Unformatted text preview: of biotic & abiotic resources in its environment. 5. Competitive exclusion and ecological niche principle = two species cannot exist permanently in a community if their niches are identical. 6. Resource portioning is the differentiation of niches that enable similar species to coexist in a community; evolution of natural selection can result on one of the species using a different set of resources. 7. Fundamental niche = what niche the species could potentially occupy; determine by testing range of conditions in which species grows and reproduces in absence of competitors (can also remove a competitor and see if species expands into new space). Realized niche = portion of fundamental niche actually occupied 8. Character displacement is when characteristics diverge more in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations; sympatric = geographically overlapping & allopatric = geographically separate. 9. Cryptic coloration = camouflage Aposematic coloration = warning coloration, bright, noticeable 10. Chemical defense = skunk smell Mechanical defense = porcupine body 11. Batesian mimicry = harmless mimics harmless Mullerian mimicry = two harmful (unpalatable) species resemble another 12. Symbiosis is when two or more species live in direct contact with one another; 3 categories: 1. Parasitism +/- one benefits, one harmed 2. Mutualism +/+ both benefits 3. Commensalism +/0 one benefits, one unharmed 13. There are two components of species diversity: 1. Species richness (number of different species in a community) 2. Relative abundance (proportion of each species represents of all individuals in community) 14. Shannon diversity Calculate 100 butterflies distributed among 5 species— 30 cabbage white; 25 black; 20 giant; 20 clouded; 5 Bog ElfrinH=-[(.05ln.05)+(.30ln.30)+(.25ln.25)+(.20ln.20)+(.20ln.20)+(.05ln.05)= -1.65 15. Energetic hypothesis means that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain. 16. Dominant species are species in a community that are most abundant or collectively have the most biomass; one way to discover impact of dominant species is to remove it from the community (example: American chesnut was dominant species in eastern US, a fungal disease ch...
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This document was uploaded on 03/02/2014 for the course BIO 109 at University of Missouri-Kansas City .

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