Plant defenses against herbivores spines toxic

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Unformatted text preview: biomass (g/m2/yr) 8. Oceans contribute most to Earths NPP. Algal beds and reefs have highest average NPP; terrestrial. 9. Estuaries have highest average APP of any ecosystem but account for less than 1% of the Earth NPP because they account for only .3% of earth’s surface. 10. Nitrogen and Phosphorus are the nutrients found limiting in terrestrial and wetland production. 11. Secondary production is chemical energy in a consumer’s food that is converted to their own new biomass; production efficiency is the amount of energy stored in food that is not used for respiration: Production efficiency= Net 2° production/assimilation of 1° production 12. Production efficiency of: birds & mammals (1-3%), fish (10%), insects (40%) 13. Trophic efficiency is the percent of production transferred from one trophic level to the next (5-20% is usually transferred) 14. In a pyramid of biomass each tier represents standing crop (total dry weight of all organisms) in one trophic level Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers 15. An inverted biomass pyramid in certain aquatic ecosystems is due to primary consumers outweighing producers. 16. Only about .1% energy can flow all the way through...
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This document was uploaded on 03/02/2014 for the course BIO 109 at University of Missouri-Kansas City .

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