SCanswersEDITED - October 11 2012 Study Companion Chapter...

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Study Companion Chapter 35: Plant Structure, Growth, and Development 1. Gametophyte- in organisms (plants & some algae) that have alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes by mitosis; the haploid gametes unite and develop into sporophytes Sporophyte- in organisms (plants & some algae) that have alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that results from the union of gametes; produces haploid spores by meiosis that develops into gametophytes Tissue- group of cells with a common function, structure, or both Organ- consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions Epidermis- the dermal tissue system of non-woody plants, usually consisting of a single layer of tightly packed cells Cuticle- a waxy covering on the surface of stems & leaves that acts as an adaption that prevents desiccation in terrestrial plants Periderm- the protective coat that replaces the epidermis in woody plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium Stele- the vascular tissue of a stem or root Apical meristem- embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots & the buds of shoots; the dividing cells of an apical meristem enable the plant to grow in length Lateral meristem- a meristem that thickens the roots & shoots of woody plants. Examples: the vascular cambium and cork cambium Sieve-tube element- living cell that conducts sugars & other organic nutrients in the phloem of angiosperms; also called a sieve-tube member; connected end to end, they form sieve tubes Companion cell- a type of plant that is connected to a sieve-tube element by many plasmodesmata and whose nucleus & ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve- tube elements
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Tracheid- a long, tapered water- conducting cell found in the xylem of nearly all vascular plants; functioning tracheids are no longer living Vessel element- a short, wide water-conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants; dead at maturity, vessel elements are aligned end to end to form micropipes called vessels 2. “Alternation of Generations” means the alteration of a haploid multicellular organism (gametophyte) & diploid multicellular organism (sporophyte). 3. An angiosperm is a flowering plant, which forms a seed inside a protective chamber called an ovary. With few expectations, angiosperms & other vascular plants rely completely on both root & shoot systems; two major groups: monocots & eudicots. 4. A root is a multicellular organ that anchors a plant to the soil, absorbs minerals & water- may also store carbs or starches. 5. The functions of root hairs are tiny extensions of the root epidermal cells, growing just behind root tips and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals.
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