Lecture 10 notes (exam 2 review)

Lecture 10 notes (exam 2 review) - 1s 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d...

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2/6/2009 1 Main group s block 2 s 4 s 5 s 6 s 7 s 3 s 1 s 5 f 4 f 6 d 4 d 3 d 5 d 6 d 5 d 4 d 3 d 4 p 5 p 6 p 7 p 3 p 2 p 1 s Lanthanides and actinides f block Transition elements d block Main group p block Block identities show where successive e add. Note: d “steps down”, f “steps down” again. Atom Electron Configurations Increasing ( n + l ), then increasing n 1 s 2 s 3 s 4 s 5 s 6 s 7 s 8 s 2 p 3 p 4 p 5 p 6 p 7 p 3 d 4 d 5 d 6 d 5 f 4 f n value 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 l value 012 3 n + l = 1 n + l = 2 n + l = 3 n + l = 4 n + l = 5 n + l = 6 n + l = 7 n + l = 8 Atom Electron Configurations Quantum Numbers Each orbital ( ψ ) required three quantum numbers: n, l, and m l Principal quantum number, n ( n = 1, 2, 3, … ) •Most important in determining the orbital energy . • Defines the orbital size . •Orb ita ls with equal n are in the same shell. Quantum Numbers l 012345. . . Code spdf gh ... Azimuthal quantum number, l ( l = 0 to n 1) • Defines the shape of an orbital. • Orbitals with equal l (and equal n ) are in the same subshell . • Code letters identify l Quantum Numbers Magnetic quantum number, m l (m l = – l to + l ) Defines the orientation of the orbital. Example List all sets of quantum numbers for an n = 3 e - . Every ( n, l, m l ) set has a different shape and/or orientation. l = 0, or 1, or 2 if n = 3 and l = 2 (3 d ), m l is 2, 1, 0, 1 or 2. if n = 3 and l = 1 (3 p ), m l is 1, 0, or 1. if n = 3 and l = 0 (3 s ), m l must be 0.
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2/6/2009 2 Electron Spin Experiments showed a 4 th quantum no. was needed •+½ or ½ only. spin quantum number, m s View an e as a spinning sphere. Spinning charges act as magnets. • Pauli: every e - in an atom must have a unique set of ( n, l , m l , m s ). ± Maximum of 2e - per orbital (opposite spins). ± Pauli exclusion principle . Quantum Numbers Number of Number of Maximum Electron Subshell Orbitals Electrons Electrons Shell type Available Possible for n th Shell ( n ) (= 2 l + 1) in Subshell (= 2 n 2 ) 1 s 1 2 2 2 s 1 2 p 36 8 3 s 12 p 3 6 d 5 10 18 4 s 1 2 p 3 6 d 5 10 f 7 14 32 5 s 1 2 p 3 6 d 5 10 f 7 14 g *9 18 50 s Orbitals l = 0 orbital: Every shell ( n level) has one s orbital.
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Lecture 10 notes (exam 2 review) - 1s 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d...

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