Unformatted text preview: Heating
Temperature is a measure of the thermal energy of a sample. System = the part of the universe under study
chemicals in a flask.
the coffee in your coffee cup.
my textbook. Thermal energy Surroundings = rest of the universe (or as much as
needed…) • E of motion of atoms, molecules, and ions.
• Atoms of all materials are always in motion. the flask.
perhaps the flask and this classroom.
perhaps the flask and all of the building, etc. • Higher T = faster motion. Universe = System + Surroundings Calculating Thermodynamic Changes • No subscript? Refers to the system: E = Esystem
• E is transferred by heat or by work.
• Conservation of energy becomes: ΔE = q + w
SURROUNDINGS work Heat Capacity Heat capacity = E required to raise the T of an object
by 1 C. Varies from material to material.
Specific heat capacity (c)
• E needed to...
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