Firstlearninginvolveschange 2

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Unformatted text preview: . Following are the characteristics of learning: 1. First, learning involves change. 2. Second, the change must be relatively permanent. 3. Third, learning is concerned with behavior. Sikkim Manipal University 41 Learning Unit 9 4. Finally, some form of experience is necessary for learning Learning objectives The learning objectives of this unit are as follows: 1. Theories of learning 2. Behavior modification 4.2 Theories of Learning There are three theories of learning namely ­ classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning 1. Classical conditioning: Classical Conditioning is a form of associative learning process proposed by Pavlov (1927). This process involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus does not lead to an overt behavioral response from the organism. This is called as Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Significant stimulus evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. This is called Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, e...
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