Unformatted text preview: ventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to it. It is the Conditioned Response (CR).Classical conditioning was first experimented by Russian physiologist, Ivan Pavlov, to teach dogs to salivate in response to the ringing of a bell. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs, Pavlov used a bell before giving food to his dog. Rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat (a response to food unconditioned response), after a few repetitions, the dog started to salivate in response to the bell. Thus, a neutral stimulus (bell) became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US – meat). Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a Conditioned Response. 2. Operant Conditioning: The operant conditioning theory is proposed by B.F. Skinner (1953, 1954). This is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to stimuli. W hen a part...
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