Reinforcementisthekeyelementinskinnerss

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Unformatted text preview: icular Stimulus­Response (S­R) pattern is reinforced Sikkim Manipal University 42 Learning Unit 9 (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S­ R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. Principles of operant conditioning are as follows: 1. Behavior is learned. 2. Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur. 3. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping") 4. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning. 5. Rewards are most effective if they immediately follow the desired response. For example, if a subordinate is praised by his boss for looking good in a certain attire, the subordinate is likely to wear that attire and present himself in front of boss, especially when he needs to please the boss. 3. Social Learning The social learning theory was proposed by Bandura. It recognizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emoti...
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