Unformatted text preview: ses and a cognitive appraisal of what caused those responses produce emotions. How one interprets the peripheral response will determine the emotion he / she feels. Individuals label the emotional response depending on what we think is causing the response. For example, when someone interprets a stimulus as dangerous, it leads to physiological arousal. Then, this physiological arousal is interpreted to a particular emotion. It can be fear, surprise, excitement, and astonishment depending on how the arousal is labeled. IV. Lazarus' appraisal theory (1980): An individual makes an initial and sometimes unconscious cognitive appraisal of the situation to decide, if there is a threat; coping action is taken if necessary; and the individual takes a closer look and identifies the emotions he or she is feeling. V. Weiner's attribution theory (1986, 1992): Certain attributions produce specific emotions. Once the initial evaluation has been made, the individual looks at what caused the event. These attributions of causality can modify the emotion felt. It is the interaction of the perceived internal and Sikkim Manipal University 84 Emotions Unit 7 external causes, controllability and outcome that will determine the emotional responses. W hat are the basic emotions? Ortony and Turner (1990) collated a wide range of research as to what basic emotions are and the basis of including them as basic emotions and proposed a comprehensive description of basic emotions and corresponding reasons for inclusion : A comprehensive description of basic emotions and corresponding reasons for inclusion Sikkim Manipal University 85 Emotions Unit 7 Source: Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). W hat's basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97, 3, July, 315331 Basic Emotions Arnold Ekman, Friesen, and Ellsworth Frijda Gray Izard James McDougall Mowrer Oatley and Johnson Laird Panksepp Plutchik Tomkins W atson Basis for Inclusion An...
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