Unformatted text preview: ations. Summary of Mayo's Beliefs: Individual workers cannot be treated in isolation, but must be seen as members of a group. Monetary incentives and good working condition are less important to the individual than the need to belong to a group. Informal or unoff icial groups formed at work have a strong influence on the behavior of those workers in a group Managers must be aware of these 'social needs' and cater for them to ensure that employees collaborate with the official organization rather than work against it. Another contributor whose work revolutionized thinking about workplaces was Dale Carnegie. His book How to W in Friends and Influence people is a classic which is referred by management experts even today. His main theme centered on the idea that the way to success was through winning the cooperation of people. He advised: 1. To make others feel important through a sincere appreciation of their efforts 2. Seek to make a good impression 3. Win people to your way of thinking by letting others do the talking, being sympathetic and never telling others that they are wrong 4. Change people by praising their good traits and giving chance to others to save their face The next contributor who influenced the human aspects of management in workplace was Abraham Maslow. Maslow proposed the need hierarchy theory (physiological, safety, social esteem and self actualization needs) and stated that each step in the hierarchy must be satisfied before the next can be activated and once a need was substantially satisfied, it no longer motivated an individual. Self actualization was the ultimate goal of human existence. Managers who accepted this hierarchy theory attempted to alter the organization and management practices to reduce barriers to employees’ self actualization Douglas McGregor was another contributor to the human relations movement. He formulated two sets of assumptions – Theory X and Theory Y about human nature. Theory X posited a negative Sikkim Manipal University 26 Organizational Behavior Unit 2 view of people stating that this category have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility and need to be closely directed at workplace. Theory Y category on the other hand proposed a positive view of people stating that they can exercise self direction, assume responsibility and considered work as a natural activity. McGregor personally believed that Theory Y described best the nature of people at work and therefore form the basis of all management practices in organizations. Managers should give freedom to their subordinates in order to unleash their full creative and productive potential D. Behavioral Science Theorists These theorists engaged in objective research of human behavior in organizations. Some of the major theorists who contributed to the growth of OB as a discipline are briefly given below. B. F. Skinner His research on conditioning (classical and operant) and behavior modification influenced the design of organization training programs and reward systems. Behavior is a function of consequence according to Skinner and he stated that p...
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- Fall '10
- The Land, Manipal University, Sikkim Manipal University