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Unformatted text preview: 2 » 1989: Charles Handy: The Age of Unreason » 1990: Peter Senge: The Fifth Discipline » 1990: Richard Pascale: Managing on the Edge » 1993: James Champy and Mike Hammer: Reengineering the Corporation 1995: Karl W eick: Sensemaking in Organizations » 1997: Arie de Geus: The Living Company » 1997: Thomas Stewart: Intellectual Capital » 2000: Richard Pascale: Surfing the Edge of Chaos »2001: Daniel Pink: Free Agent Nation Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Adam Smith stated that organizations and society would reap from the __________ of labor 2. Taylor has proposed ____________ principles of management. 3. Fayol has proposed _______________ theory. 2.4 Contributing Disciplines To T he OB Field Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. The main areas are psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and political science. Psychology : Psychology is the science that attempts to measure, explain, and at times change the behavior of humans and other animals. Early industrial/organizational psychologists were concerned with problems of fatigue, boredom, and other factors relevant to working conditions that could disrupt/ impede eff icient work performance. More recently, their contributions have been expanded to include learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces, job satisfaction, decision making processes, performance appraisals, attitude measurement, employee selection techniques, work design, and job stress. Sikkim Manipal University 29 Organizational Behavior Unit 2 Sociology Sociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles; that is, sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings. Their significant contribution to OB is through their study of group behavior in organizations, particularly formal and complex organizations. Social Psychology Social psychology blends the concepts of psychology and sociology. It focuses on the influence of people on one another. The major challenge deals with the issue of how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance. Anthropology Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Anthropologists work on cultures and environments; for example, they have aided in understanding diff erences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior among people in different countries and within diff erent organizations. Political Science Political science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. It focuses on areas, such as, conflict, intraorganizational politics and power. Self Assessment Questions 3 1. _______________ is the science that attempts to measure, explain, and at times change the behavior of humans and other animals. 2. _______________ blends the concepts of psychology and sociology. 3. Political science studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a ________________ environment. 2.5 Summary Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within an organization, then applies that knowledge to make organizations work more effectively. Specifically, OB focuses on how to improve productivity, reduce absenteeism and turnover, and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction. An organization
Sikkim Manipal University 30 Organizational Behavior Unit 2 is more than a formal arrangement of functions, more than an organization chart, more than a vision statement, more than a set of accounts. An organization consists of people and so it is also a social system. The field of organizational behavior (OB) draws primarily from the behavioral science disciplines of psychology, social psychology, and cultural anthropology. The areas on which OB focuses are individuals who will often be working within groups, which themselves work within organizations, as well as all the interrelationships between them. Some of the specific themes embraced by OB are personality theory, attitudes and values, motivation and learning, interpersonal behavior, group dynamics, leadership and teamwork, organizational structure and design, decision making, power, conflict, and negotiation. OB is an interdisciplinary field, it has distinctly humanistic outlook, it is performance oriented, it considers external environment as critical, it uses scientific method and it has an applications orientation. Wood (1997) provides a useful model for exploring behavioral events. He suggests that different levels of analysis can be applied when examining the significance of an organizational issue. He proposes eight, namely: Individual, Team, Intergroup, Organizational, Interorganizational, Societal, International, and Global. A large number of people have contributed to the growth of OB as a discipline. Some of the most important works have been done by Adam Smith, Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol, Max W eber, Mary parker Follet, Abraham Maslow, B. F. Skinner, to name a few. Organizational behavior is an applied behavioral science that is built upon contributions from a number of behavioral disciplines. The main areas are psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and political science. Terminal Questions 1. Discuss Taylors’ scientific principles of management. 2. Explain Fayol’s administrative theory. 3. W hat is W eber’s ideal bureaucratic structure? 4. Summarize Mayo’ belief. Answers to Self Assessment Questions Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Social 2. Cooperative 3. Interdisciplinary Sikkim Manipal University 31 Organizational Behavior Unit 2 Self Assessment Questions 2 1. Division 2. Scientific 3. Administrative Self Assessment Questions 3 1. Psychology 2. Social psychology 3. Political Answers to Terminal Questions 1. Refer section 2.3 2. Refer section 2.3 3. Refer section 2.3 4. Refer section 2.3 Sikkim Manipal University 32...
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