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Thus in her writing one can trace the importance of

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Unformatted text preview: Relations Move ment Since the industrialists of the early decades of the twentieth century followed Taylor’s lead and put the emphasis on eff iciency, it was some years before any significant attention was paid to the needs and motivations of that other major factor involved in the work process – the workers. One of the Sikkim Manipal University 24 Organizational Behavior Unit 2 early pioneers of a view that actually people were central to the world of business was Mary Parker Follett. W ith this started the beginning of what may be termed as the Human relations Movement as contributor to the field of OB Follet believed that organizations should be based on a group ethic rather than on individualism. The manager’s work was to harmonize and coordinate group efforts. Managers and workers need to look at each other as partners. Therefore managers should rely more on workers’ expertise and knowledge than on formal authority of their position to lead their subordinates. Thus in her writing one can trace the importance of motivation and group togetherness , so much required in modern day organizational situations. Another major influence in the human relations movement came from the work of Chester Barnard. Barnard viewed organizations as consisting of people who have interacting social relationships. Barnard viewed organizational success in terms of fostering cooperation from various stakeholders such as, employees and others like customers, investors, suppliers and other external constituencies. Thus irrespective of excellent production systems, Barnard emphasized the need for boundary spanning activities and development of skills and motivation of employees for organizational effectiveness and success. Elton Mayo is known as the founder of the Human Relations Movement, and is known for his research including the Hawthorne Studies, and his book The Social Problems of an Industrialised Civilization (1933). The research he conducted under the Hawthorne Studies of the 1930s showed the significance of groups in affecting the behavior of individuals at work. However, it was not Mayo who conducted the practical experiments but his employees Roethlisberger and Dickinson. This helped him to make certain deductions about how managers should behave. He carried out a number of investigations to look at ways of improving productivity, for example changing lighting conditions in the workplace. His findings were that work satisfaction depended to a large extent on the informal social pattern of the workgroup. W here ever norms of cooperation and higher output were established it was due to a feeling of importance. Physical conditions or financial incentives had little motivational value. People Sikkim Manipal University 25 Organizational Behavior Unit 2 will f orm workgroups and this can be used by management to benefit the organization. He concluded that people's work performance is dependent on both social issues and job content. He suggested a tension between workers' 'logic of sentiment' and managers' 'logic of cost and efficiency' which could lead to conflict within organiz...
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