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Unformatted text preview: hus designed. 4. Train the worker to do the work efficiently. Sikkim Manipal University 21 Organizational Behavior Unit 2 5. Monitor worker performances to ensure that appropriate work procedures are followed and that appropriate results are achieved. Taylor was one of the first to attempt to systematically analyze human behavior at work. He insisted the use of time­and­motion study as a means of standardizing work activities. His scientific approach called for detailed observation and measurement of even the most routine work, to find the optimum mode of performance. The results were dramatic, with productivity increasing significantly. W ith passing time, new organizational functions like personnel and quality control were created. Of course, in breaking down each task to its smallest unit to find what Taylor called ‘‘the one best way’’ to do each job, the effect was to remove human variability. Hence he lay the ground for the mass production techniques that dominated management thinking in the first half of the twentieth century. Henri Fayol, a mining engineer and manager by profession, defined the nature and working patterns of the twentieth­century organization in his book, General and Industrial Management, published in 1916. In it, he laid down what he called 14 principles of management. This theory is also called the Administrative Theory. The principles of the theory are: 1. Division of work: tasks should be divided up with employees specializing in a limited set of tasks so that expertise is developed and productivity increased. 2. Authority and responsibility: authority is the right to give orders and entails enforcing them with rewards and penalties; authority should be matched with corresponding responsibility. 3. Discipline: this is essential for the smooth running of business and is dependent on good leadership, clear and fair arguments, and the judicious application of penalties. 4. Unity of command: for any action whatsoever, an employee should receive orders from one superior only; otherwise authority, discipline, order, and stability are threatened. 5. Unity of direction: a group of activities concerned with a single objective should be co­coordinated by a single plan under one head. 6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: individual or group goals must not be allowed to override those of the business. Sikkim Manipal University 22 Organizational Behavior Unit 2 7. Remuneration of personnel: this may be achieved by various methods but it should be fair, encourage effort, and not lead to overpayment. 8. Centralization: the extent to which orders should be issued only from the top of the organization is a problem which should take into account its characteristics, such as size and the capabilities of the personnel. 9. Scalar chain (line of authority): communications should normally flow up and down the line of authority running from the top to the bottom of the organization, but sideways communication between those of equivalent rank in different departments can be desirabl...
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