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Unformatted text preview: uline social values like a work ethic expressed in terms of money, achievement and recognition as opposed to feminine social role which show more concern for people and quality of life. Hofstede and Bond (1988) have identified a fifth dimension (based on Confucian dynamism), called ‘long­term orientation’, which measures employees’ devotion to the work ethic and their respect for tradition. It was found that Asian countries like Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan are extremely strong in work ethic and commitment to traditional Confucian values. Hofstede (1991) further proposed that each person carries around several layers of cultural programming. It starts when a child learns basic values: what is right and wrong, good and bad, logical and illogical, beautiful and ugly. Culture is about your fundamental assumptions of what it is to be a person and how you should interact with other persons in your group and with outsiders. The first level of culture is the deepest, the most diff icult to change and will vary according to the culture in which we grow up. Other layers of culture are learned or programmed in the course of education, through professional or craft training and in organization life. Some of the aspects of culture learned later have to do with conventions and ethics in your profession. These layers are more of ways of doing things, or practices as opposed to fundamental assumptions about how things are. Sikkim Manipal University 57 Value, Ethics And Job Satisf action Unit 5 GLOBE research GLOBE project integrates the above –mentioned cultural attributes and variables with managerial behavior in organizations. Following are some of the questions asked in this project to prove that leadership and organizational processes were directly influenced by cultural variables: 1. Are leader behaviors, attributes and organizational practices universally accepted and effective across cultures? 2. Are they influenced by societal and organizational cultures? 3. What is the effect of violating cultural norms that are relevant to leadership and organizational practices? 4. Can the universal and culture­specific aspects of leadership behaviour and organizational practice be explained with the help of a theory accounting for systematic differences across cultures? From the above, GLOBE project identified nine cultural dimensions (House, Javidan, Hanges and Dorfman, 2002: 3­10) 1. Uncertainty­ avoidance: GLOBE project defined this dimension as the extent to which a society or an organization tries to avoid uncertainty by depending heavily on prevalent norms, rituals and bureaucratic practices. 2. Power distance: it is the degree to which power is unequally shared in a society or an organization. 3. Collectivism­I i.e. societal collectivism: it is the degree to which society and organization encourages, and recognizes collective performance. 4. Collectiv...
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