Unformatted text preview: rs his/her perceived performance level important to selfworth. 3. Organizational commitment 1. It is defined as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. Research evidence has shown a negative relationship between organizational commitment and both absenteeism as well as turnover. An individual’s level of organizational commitment is a better indicator of turnover than the far more frequently used job satisfaction predictor, because, it is a more global and enduring response to the organization as a whole than is job satisfaction. Attitudes and Consistency W hen there is an inconsistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behavior are again consistent, by altering either the attitudes or the behavior, or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy. Sikkim Manipal University 61 Value, Ethics And Job Satisf action Unit 5 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Festinger (1957), while linking attitudes with behavior, argued that, any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance. The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by the importance of the elements creating the dissonance, the degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over the elements and the rewards that may be involved in dissonance Importance: If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct this imbalance will be low. Influence: If the dissonance is perceived as an uncontrollable result, they are less likely to be receptive to attitude change. Though dissonance exists, it is possible to rationalize and justify it. Rewards: The inherent tension in high dissonance tends to be reduced with high rewards. However, it is not possible for any individual to completely avoid dissonance. Due to moderating factors, individuals will not necessarily move to reduce dissonance—or consistency. Contemporary research has shown that attitudes can significantly predict future behavior and has confirmed Festinger’s original view that relationship can be enhanced by taking moderating variables into account( Robbins, 2003). The most powerful moderators are: 1. Importance 2. Specificity 3. Accessibility 4. Social pressures 5. Direct experience 1. Importance: refers to fundamental values, selfinterest, or identification with individuals or groups that a person values. 2. Specificity: The more specific the attitude and the more specific the behavior, the stronger the link between the two. Sikkim Manipal University 62 Value, Ethics And Job Satisf action Unit 5 3. Accessibility: Attitudes that are easily remembered are more likely to predict behavior than attitudes that are not accessible in memory. 4. Social pressures: Discrepancies between attitudes and behavior are more likely to occur where social pressures to behave...
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- Fall '10
- Sikkim Manipal University, Job Satisf action