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Unformatted text preview: ism­II­ In­group collectivism: it is the degree to which individuals take pride, loyalty and cohesiveness in their organizations and families. 5. Gender egalitarianism: GLOBE has defined this as an extent to which a society or an organization minimizes gender differences and discrimination. 6. Assertiveness: it is the degree to which individuals, both in organizational and social context are, assertive and confrontational. Sikkim Manipal University 58 Value, Ethics And Job Satisf action Unit 5 7. Future orientation: it is the degree to which individuals are encouraged in long­ term future – orientated behaviors such as planning, investing, etc. 8. Performance orientation: this dimension encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement. 9. Humane orientation: it is the degree to which organizations or society encourage or reward for being fair, altruistic, friendly, generous and caring. Work behavior across cultures In every culture, there are different sets of attitudes and values which affect behavior. Similarly, every individual has a set of attitudes and beliefs – filters through which he/she views management situations within organizational context. Managerial beliefs, attitudes and values can affect organizations positively or negatively. Managers portray trust and respect in their employees in diff erent ways in different cultures. This is a function of their own cultural backgrounds. For example, managers from specific cultures tend to focus only on the behavior that takes place at work, in contrast to managers from diffused cultures who focus on wider range of behavior including employees’ private and professional lives. Trompenaars and Hampden­Turner (1998:86) have conducted a survey to find out whether the employees believe their companies should provide housing to the employees. It was found out that most managers from diffused cultures believed that company should provide such facility (former Yugoslavia 89%, Hungary 83%, China 82%, Russia 78%), whereas less than 20% managers from specific cultures such as UK, Australia, Denmark, France, etc., agreed on the same. Laurent (1983: 75­96), as a result of his survey with managers from nine W estern European countries, U.S., three Asian countries found distinctly different patterns for managers in common work situations. Task and relationship: in response to the statement which states that the main reason for a hierarchical structure was to communicate the authority­ relationship, most U.S. managers disagreed whereas, most Asian , Latin American managers strongly agreed. It was quite evident that U.S managers, having an extremely task­ oriented culture, believed more in flatter organizational structure to become more effective. On the other hand, the second set of managers were f rom more Sikkim Manipal University 59 Valu...
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