Again a variety of wellworn techniques may be used

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Unformatted text preview: re is little chance of it being visible.. · Making organizations less autocratic by asking managers to behave more democratically is not necessarily embraced by all individual managers. Internally if the managers believe in autocracy they would use the required committees, conferences, and group meetings in a superficial way as arenas for maneuvering and manipulating. · Top management may set the climate for politicking by engaging in certain behaviors, thereby giving a signal to people below in the order that is alright to engage in such behavior. W hen employees see top management successfully engaging in political behavior, a climate is created that supports politicking. To counter the effects of politicking and protect oneself in organizational contexts, individuals may use three strategies : Sikkim Manipal University 159 Power And Politics Unit 11 (1) Avoid action and risk taking (2) Redirect accountability and responsibility (3) Defend their turf. Avoidance: Avoidance is quite common in controversial areas where the employee must risk being wrong or where actions may yield a sanction. The most common reaction is to “work to the rules.” That is, employees are protected when they adhere strictly to all the rules, policies, and procedures or do not allow deviations or exceptions. Redirecting Responsibility: Politically sensitive individuals will always protect themselves from accepting blame for the negative consequences of their actions. Again, a variety of well­worn techniques may be used for redirecting responsibility. “Passing the buck” is a common method employees and managers use. The trick here is to define the task in such a way that it becomes someone else’s formal responsibility. Defending Turf : Defending turf is a time­honored tradition in most large organizations. This results form the coalitional nature of organizations. That is, the organization may be seen as a collection of competing interests held by various departments and groups. As each group tries to increase its influence, it starts to encroach on the activities of other groups. There are certain other interesting findings regarding people’s responses to organizational politics Research evidence indicates strong points out that perception of organizational politics are negatively related to job satisfaction. The perception of politics results in anxiety or stress. And when it gets too much to handle, employees leave the organizations. It may thus be a de­motivating force and performance may suffer as a result. The effect of politics is moderated by the knowledge the individual has of the decision making system and his/her political skills. In this regard the following observations have been made: · High political skills individuals often have improved performance. Sikkim Manipal University 160 Power And Politics · Unit 11 Low political skills individuals often respond with defensive behaviors—reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action, change, or blame. Reaction to organizational politics is also influenced by culture. In countries that are more unstable...
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