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Unformatted text preview: elative to demand can negotiate compensation and benefit packages, which are far more attractive than can those in occupations where there is an abundance of candidates. Thus scarcity in supply of certain types of skilled people can give them power to bargain over compensations and other benefits. Sikkim Manipal University 151 Power And Politics · Unit 11 Non­substitutability The more that a resource has no viable substitutes, the more power that control over that resource provides. Self Assessment Questions 1 1. Formal power may be categorized into___________ types. 2. The opposite of coercive power is __________ power 3. Expert power is relative, not ______________. 11.3 Power T actics Using position and personal power well to achieve the desired influence over other people is a challenge for most managers. There are many useful ways of exercising relational influence. The most common strategies involve the following (Kipinis et. Al, 1984): · Reason—Use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas · Friendliness—Use of flattery, creation of goodwill, acting humble, and being friendly · Coalition—Getting the support of other people in the organization to back up the request · Bargaining—Use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits or favors · Assertiveness—Use of a direct and forceful approach such as demanding compliance · Higher authority—Gaining the support of higher levels in the organization to back up requests · Sanctions—Use of organizationally derived rewards and punishments Employees rely on the seven tactics variably. Depending on the situational factors, individuals tend to use the above strategies accordingly to the suitability and the likelihood of the success to be achieved by employing the same. The manager’s relative power impacts the selection of tactics in two ways. Sikkim Manipal University 152 Power And Politics · Unit 11 First, managers who control resources that are valued by others, or who are perceived to be in positions of dominance, use a greater variety of tactics than do those with less power. · Second, managers with power use assertiveness with greater frequency than do those with less power. · Resistance leads to managers using more directive strategies. The manager’s objectives for wanting to influence causes them to vary their power tactics. The objectives may be as follows: · W hen seeking benefits from a superior, they use friendliness. · W hen they are in need to make superiors accept new ideas, they usually rely on reason. · Managers use reason to sell ideas to employees and friendliness to obtain favors. Research evidence also supports the following with regard to use of tactics and the choice used by managers with regard to power: The manager’s expectation of the target person’s willingness to comply is an important factor. W hen past experience indicates a high probability of success, managers use simple requests to gain compliance. W here success is less predictable, managers are more likely to use assertiveness and sanctions to achieve their objectives. The organization’s culture also pl...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2014 for the course MBA mba taught by Professor Smu during the Fall '10 term at Manipal University.

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