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Unformatted text preview: low conflicts exist, managers can adjust the level of interdependency among units or individuals (W alton & Dutton, 1969). To reduce the conflict, contact between conflicting parties may be reduced. The conflicting units can then be separated from one another, and each can be provided separate access to resources. Buffering is another technique to build an inventory, or buffer, between the two groups so that any output slowdown or excess is absorbed by the inventory and does not directly pressure the target group. Appeals to Common Goals An appeal to common goals can f ocus on the mutual interdependence of the conflicting parties to achieve the common goal of an organization. Hierarchical Referral – Here conflicts are reported to the senior levels to reconcile and solve. Self­Assessment Questions 3 1. There are ___________ direct approaches to conflict management. 2. ____________ occurs when each party gives up something of value to the other. 3. ___________________ is a process where conflicts are reported to the senior levels to reconcile and solve. 12.5 Negotiation Negotiation is a “process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them (Robbins, 2008). There are two general approaches to negotiation: distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. Distributive bargaining Sikkim Manipal University 171 Conflict Management Unit 12 W hen engaged in distributive bargaining, one’s tactics focus on trying to get one’s opponent to agree to one’s specific target point or to get as close to it as possible. “Hard” distributive negotiation takes place when each party holds out to get its own way. The hard approach may lead to a win–lose outcome in which one party dominates and gains. “Soft” distributive negotiation, takes place when one party is willing to make concessions to the other to get things over with. A soft approach leads to accommodation in which one party gives in to the other, or to compromise in...
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