Cognitive evaluation theory proposes that when

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Unformatted text preview: etitive physical work, where higher education and skills are not required. For this category of people, flexible work schedules and higher pay package may be proved effective motivational factors. Self­assessment questions 5 1. The professional employees likely to seek more ____________satisfaction from their work than blue­collar employees 2. Temporary workers may be motivated if they are provided with ___________ job opportunity. 9.7 Summary Motivation is “the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal”. According to Maslow’s theory, human beings have five needs, which influence their behavior. Those five needs are Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem, and Self­ actualization needs. In theory X and Y, McGregor argued that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. Herzberg (1959) constructed a two­ dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people's attitudes about work. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation­hygiene theory. Alderfer classified needs into three categories into hierarchical order. They are: the existence category, the Relatedness category and the Growth category. This theory is very similar to Maslow’s theory. Existence need corresponds with Maslow’s physiological and safety needs, Relatedness need corresponds with Maslow’s social needs and Growth need corresponds with Maslow’s esteem and self­actualization needs. McClelland’s theory focuses on three needs: achievement, power, and aff iliation. According to this theory, people with high need for achievement have a compelling drive to succeed. Individuals high in need for power enjoy being “in charge” of any situation. Indivi...
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