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Unformatted text preview: . Goals seem to have a more substantial effect on performance when tasks are simple, well­learned, and independent. 3 National culture: Goal­setting theory is culture bound and it is well adapted to North American cultures. Sikkim Manipal University 120 Motivation Unit 9 Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory (Komaki et. al., 1991) argues that reinforcement conditions human behavior. According to this theory, behavior is a function of its consequences. Behavior is environmentally caused. It can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. Equity Theory According to this theory (Adams, 1965), employees make comparisons of their job inputs and outcomes relative to those of others. If, an individual perceives the input­outcome ratio to be equal to that of the relevant others with whom he/she compares his/herself, a state of equity is said to exist. He/she perceives the situation as fair. If the ratio appears to be unequal, the individual experience inequity. There are four referent comparisons that an employee can use: Self­inside: An employee’s experiences in a different position inside his or her current organization Self­outside: An employee’s experiences in a situation or position outside his or her current organization Other­inside: Another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization Other­outside: Another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization There are certain issues which are crucial regarding Equity theory. They are as follows: 1 Employees with short tenure in their current organizations tend to have little information about others. 2 Employees with long tenure rely more heavily on co­workers for comparison. 3 Upper­level employees will make more other­outside comparisons. W hen employees perceive an inequity, they can be predicted to make one of six choices: Change their inputs. Change their outcomes. Sikkim Manipal University 121 Motivation Unit 9 Distort perceptions of self. Distort perceptions of others. Choose a diff erent referent. Leave the field. Organizational justice People’s perceptions of fairness in organizations, consisting of perceptions of how decisions are made regarding the distribution of outcomes and the perceived fairness of those outcomes themselves. 1 Distributive Justice: The perceived fairness of the way rewards are distributed among people. 2 Procedural Justice : Perceptions of the fairness of the procedures used to determine outcomes. 3 Interactional Justice: The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment used to determine organizational outcomes. Motivational tips Certain tips, which may be important in this regard, are as follows: Avoid underpayment. 1 Avoid overpayment. 2 Give people a voice in decisions affecting them. 3 Explain outcomes thoroughly using a socially sensitive manner. Expectancy Theory Expectancy theory is one of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation. Victor Vroom’s (1964) expectancy theory has its critics but most of the research is supportive. Motivation is based on people’s beliefs, goals and linkage between effort and performance, performance and reward, and reward and indiv...
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