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Unformatted text preview: idual goal satisfaction. Expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. Determinants of motivation according to this theory are as follows: Expectancy: The belief that one’s efforts will positively influence one’s performance. Sikkim Manipal University 122 Motivation Unit 9 Instrumentality: An individual’s beliefs regarding the likelihood of being rewarded in accord with his or her own level of performance. Valence: The value a person places on the rewards he or she expects to receive from an organization. Other Determinants: Skills and abilities, role perceptions, opportunities to perform, etc. Three key relationships in Expectancy theory are: Eff ort­performance relationship: the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance Performance­reward relationship: the degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome Rewards­personal goals relationship: the degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those potential rewards for the individual. Performance formula A popular way of thinking about employee performance is as a function of the interaction of ability and motivation; that is, Performance = f (Ability x Motivation x Opportunity). If either of motivation or ability is inadequate, performance will be negatively affected. Furthermore, when an employee performs, he/she needs opportunity to be allowed to perform and prove his/her worth. Self­assessment questions 2 1. Alderfer classifies needs into __________ categories into hierarchical order 2. The need to excel and to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed is called need for ________________ . 3.: The perceived fairness of the interpersonal treatment used to determine organizational outcomes is called as ______________. Sikkim Manipal University 123 Motivation Unit 9 9.4 Motivating Employees In Organizations A number of motivation theories have been discussed above. Based on these theories, the following suggestions summarize the essence about motivating employees in organizations. Recognize individual differences ­ Employees have different needs. Therefore, managers need to understand what is important to each employee. This will allow to individualize goals, level of involvement, and rewards to align with individual needs. Use goals and feedback ­ Employees should have tangible and specific goals. Feedback should also be provided regularly to inform the employees about their performance in pursuit of those goals. Include employees in decision­making ­ Employees should be included in making decisions that affect them, for example, choosing their own benefits packages and solving productivity and quality problems. Link rewards to performance ­ Rewards should be contingent on performance and employees must perceive a cle...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2014 for the course MBA mba taught by Professor Smu during the Fall '10 term at Manipal University.

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