Unformatted text preview: ng to Herzberg, motivators are ____________ factors. 9.3 Contemporary T heories Of Motivation The following theories are considered contemporary , since they represent the current state of the art in explaining employee motivation ERG Theory Alderfer (1972) classifies needs into three categories into hierarchical order. They are: The existence category Provides our basic material existence requirements. They include Maslow’s physiological and safety needs. Sikkim Manipal University 117 Motivation Unit 9 Relatedness category 1 The desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. 2 These social and status desires require interaction with others. 3 They align with Maslow’s social need and the external component. Growth category An intrinsic desire for personal development. These include the intrinsic component from Maslow’s esteem category, and the characteristics included under selfactualization. This theory is very similar to Maslow’s theory. Existence need corresponds with Maslow’s physiological and safety needs, Relatedness need corresponds with Maslow’s social needs and Growth need corresponds with Maslow’s esteem and selfactualization needs. Alderfer’s ERG theory differs from Maslow’s in the following arguments: 1 More than one need may be operative at the same time. 2 If, the gratification of a higherlevel need is stifled, the desire to satisfy a lowerlevel need increases. 3 ERG theory does not assume that there exists a rigid hierarchy. A person can be working on growth even though existence or relatedness needs are unsatisfied, or all three need categories could be operating at the same time. ERG theory also contains a frustrationregression dimension. Maslow argued that an individual would stay at a certain need level until that need was satisfied. ERG argues that multiple needs can be operating as motivators at the same time. ERG theory notes that when a higherorder need level is frustrated, the individual’s desire to increase a lowerlevel need takes place (Robbins, 2003). Sikkim Manipal University 118 Motivation Unit 9 McCle lland’s Theory of Needs McClelland’s (1961) theory focuses on three needs: achievement, power, and aff iliation. They are defined as follow: Need for achievement (nAch) – The need to excel and to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for power (nPow): The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved, otherwise. Need for aff iliation (nAff ): The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships. People with high need for achievement have a compelling drive to succeed. They have a desire to do something better or more eff iciently than it has been done before. This drive is the achievement need. High achievers differentiate themselves from others by their desire to do things better. They seek situations in which they can attain personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. Individuals high in need for power e...
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