W hen these characteristics are prevalent high

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Unformatted text preview: njoy being “in charge” of any situation. They strive for influence over others and prefer to be placed into competitive and status­oriented situations. They are also more concerned with prestige and gaining influence over others than with effective performance. Individuals with high need for affiliation motive strive for friendship, prefer cooperative situations rather than competitive ones, and desire relationships that involve a high degree of mutual understanding. Based on this theory, the following assumptions can be made (Robbins, 2003): Individuals with a high need to achieve prefer job situations with personal responsibility, feedback, and an intermediate degree of risk. W hen these characteristics are prevalent, high achievers will be strongly motivated. A high need to achieve does not necessarily lead to being a good manager, especially in large organizations. People with a high achievement need are interested in how well they do personally and not in influencing others to do well. The needs for affiliation and power tend to be closely related to managerial success. The best managers are high in their need for power and low in their need for aff iliation. Sikkim Manipal University 119 Motivation Unit 9 Cognitive Evaluation Theory This theory proposes (Deci & Ryan, 1985) that when extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoff s for superior performance, the intrinsic rewards, which are derived from individuals doing what they like, are reduced. The popular explanation is that the individual experiences a loss of control over his or her own behavior so that the previous intrinsic motivation diminishes. Furthermore, the elimination of extrinsic rewards can produce a shift—from an external to an internal explanation—in an individual’s perception of causation of why he or she works on a task (Robbins, 2003). Therefore, pay or other extrinsic rewards should be made contingent on an individual’s performance. This theory may have limited applicability to work organizations, because most low­level jobs are not inherently satisfying enough to foster high intrinsic interest, and many managerial and professional positions offer intrinsic rewards Goal­Setting Theory Locke and Latham (1990) proposed that challenging goals produce a higher level of output than do the generalized goals. More diff icult the goal, the higher the level of performance will be. People will do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing toward their goals. A goal serves as a motivator, because, it causes people to compare their present capacity to perform with that required to succeed at the goal. There are four contingencies in goal­setting theory: 1 Goal commitment: Goal­setting theory presupposes that an individual is committed to the goal. 1 Adequate self­efficacy: Self­eff icacy refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher your self­efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task. 2 Task characteristics: Individual goal setting does not work equally well on all tasks...
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This note was uploaded on 03/01/2014 for the course MBA mba taught by Professor Smu during the Fall '10 term at Manipal University.

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