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W orkers need to be closely supervised and a

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Unformatted text preview: gs is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and he or she tends to mould his or her behavior toward employees according to these assumptions. Theory X – In this theory management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work, if they can. W orkers need to be closely supervised and a comprehensive system of controls and a hierarchical structure is needed to supervise the workers closely. It is also assumed that workers generally place security above all other factors and will display little ambition. Theory Y ­ In this theory management assumes employees may be ambitious, self­motivated, anxious to accept greater responsibility, and exercise self­control, self­direction, autonomy and empowerment. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. It is also believed that, if given the chance employees have the desire to be creative and forward thinking in the workplace. There is a chance for greater productivity by giving employees the freedom to perform to the best of their abilities without being bogged down by rules. From the above, it is clear that Theory X assumes that lower­order needs dominate individuals. Theory Y assumes that higher­order needs dominate individuals. Herzberg’s Two Factor theory Herzberg (1959) constructed a two­dimensional paradigm of factors affecting people's attitudes about work. These two factors are motivators and hygiene factors and this theory is also called motivation­ hygiene theory. Motivators are intrinsic factors, such as, advancement, recognition, responsibility, and achievement. Presence of these factors ensure job satisfaction. Extrinsic factors, such as, company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary are hygiene factors. The Sikkim Manipal University 116 Motivation Unit 9 absence of hygiene factors can create job dissatisfaction, but their presence does not motivate or create satisfaction. In summary, motivators describe a person's relationship with what she or he does, many related to the tasks being performed. Hygiene factors on the other hand, have to do with a person's relationship to the context or environment in which she or he performs the job. The satisfiers relate to what a person does while the dissatisfiers relate to the situation in which the person does what he or she does. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Job satisfaction factors are separate and distinct from job dissatisfaction factors. W hen hygiene factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; neither will they be satisfied. To motivate people, emphasize factors intrinsically rewarding that are associated with the work itself or to outcomes directly derived from it. Self­assessment questions 1 1. In Maslow’s theory, _____________ needs include hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs 2. In theory __________, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work 3.Accordi...
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