W hichdataarerelevanttothedecisionandwhicharenot

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Unformatted text preview: ons 4 1. ___________ is the tendency for someone’s expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. 2. A negative instance of the self­fulfilling prophecy is called _________________. 8.6 Link Between Perception And Individual Decision Making Decision­making occurs as a reaction to a problem. Problem is defined as a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state, needing attention for alternative courses of action. The awareness that a problem exists and that a decision needs to be made is a perceptual issue. Every decision requires interpretation and evaluation of information. The perceptions of the decision maker will address these two issues. · Data are typically received from multiple sources. · W hich data are relevant to the decision and which are not Alternatives will be developed, and the strengths and weaknesses of each will need to be evaluated. For example, senior managers determine their organization’s goals, what products or services to offer, how best to finance operations, or where to locate a new manufacturing plant. Middle­ and lower­level managers determine production schedules, select new employees, and decide how pay raises are to be allocated. Non­managerial employees also make decisions, including, whether or not to come to work on any given day, how much effort to put forward once at work, and whether or not to comply with a request made by the boss. Self­assessment questions 5 1. Decision­making occurs as a reaction to a ______________. 2. W hile making a decision, data are typically received from ____________ sources Sikkim Manipal University 103 Perception Unit 8 8.7 T he Decision­Making Process The optimizing decision maker is rational. He or she makes consistent, value­maximizing choices within specified constraints. This also includes the resource crunch and other limitations as well. The rational decision making model This model proposes six steps, which are as follows: Step 1: Defining the problem · A problem is a discrepancy between an existing and a desired state of affairs. · Many poor decisions can be traced to the decision­maker overlooking a problem or defining the wrong problem. Step 2: Identify the decision criteria important to solving the problem. · The decision maker determines what is relevant in making the decision. Any factors not identified in this step are considered irrelevant to the decision maker. · This brings in the decision maker’s interests, values, and similar personal preferences. Step 3: W eight the previously identified criteria in order to give them the correct priority in the decision. Step 4: Generate possible alternatives that could succeed in resolving the problem. Step 5: Rating each alternative on each criterion. · Critically analyze and evaluate each alternative. · The strengths and weaknesses of each alternative become evid...
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