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Unformatted text preview: p. Data gathering and preliminary diagnosis This stage is usually completed by the expert often with the organizational members’ help. The four basic modes of data gathering are interview, process observation, questionnaires and organizational performance data. Sikkim Manipal University 198 Organizational Change Unit 14 Feedback to key client or group Because action research is a collaborative activity, the diagnostic data is fed back to the client usually with a group or work team meeting. The consultant provides the client with all the necessary data. Joint diagnosis of the problem At this point, the clients and the expert jointly decide whether they want to work on the identified problems. Joint action planning The consultant and the client then jointly decide on the further action. This is the beginning of the movement process (refer to Lewin’s model). At this stage, specific actions are taken depending on the culture, technology and the environment of the organization. Action This stage involves actual change from one organizational state to another. It may include new methods and procedures, reorganizing structures and work designs, and new behaviors. Data gathering after action Since action research is a cyclical process, data must also be gathered after the action has taken place. Dimensions of Planned Change Though the models of change describe how to implement change, steps of planned change may be implemented in a variety of ways, depending on the clients’ needs and goals, the change agents’ skills and values, and the organizational context. Planned change can be contrasted across situations on two key dimensions: the magnitude of organizational change and the degree to which the client system is organized (Cummings and W orley 1997). Magnitude of change Planned change can range from incremental change, which involves minute alterations in the operations, to quantum change i.e. fundamental change in organizational operations including structure, culture, reward system, information processes, etc. Sikkim Manipal University 199 Organizational Change Unit 14 Degree of organization In highly mechanistic and bureaucratic organizational dimensions, structure, job design, leadership styles, policies are too rigid and inflexible. In this type of organizations, communication is suppressed, conflicts are avoided and employees are apathetic. In contrast, flexible organizations have loose task definition, communication is fragmented and job responsibilities are ambiguous. In bureaucratic organizations, change through loosening the control on behaviour is attempted. Self Assessment Questions 5 1. Lewin (1951) proposed a ___________ step sequential model of change process. 2. Action research model is another model of __________ change. 3. Planned change can range from ____________ change to _________ change. 14.7 Strategies For Change Management According to Bennis, Benne and Chin (1969), four basic strategies can be adopted to manage change: Empirical­Rational People are rational...
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