Lecture Notes 11

18 8290149 a tale of two cities 1859 the best of

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Unformatted text preview: it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to heaven, we were all going direct the other way - in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only.” 18 /(82,90*1,49 A Tale of Two Cities (1859) The best of times? 19 The worst of times? 20 QUESTION   ANSWER – Ironically, for the same reason things were so good for so many…   …rapid industrialization & new forms of capitalism 21 Industrialization   Great increase in population   Great increase in (aggregate) national wealth   Mass migration into cities   )785C>5F40;C78=ND4=24 from landed aristocracy to capitalist entrepreneurs   Rise of middle and working classes   Periodic oversupply of workers, low wages & unemployment   Growing numbers of people in poverty (10% of population paupers in 1840) 22 5=:53(1,9,49,5-0:(22 J These times produced their own, highly   distinctive philosopher J  A0F8=6>=<D;C8?;48=ND4=24BL%0;C7DB Lamarck, the Vestiges…and, in due course, Darwin himself – this man crystallized a comprehensive evolutionary philosophy that spoke to many people’s daily experience. J  He became the only philosopher in the English-speaking world ever to sell > 1 million copies of his books in his life-time 23 ,8),8:$6,4*,8  J      In the 1850s & 1860s, Spencer developed a truly comprehensive evolutionary philosophy This was simultaneously a a monumental volumes, from 1862) (10 24 Spencer’s natural philosophy Spencer’s political philosophy J There is one set of   universal natural laws, the most basic of which is the law of evolution J The rise of industrial   capitalism is an expression in society of the universal law of evolution J These laws generate   endless progress, so long as we don’t interfere with them J It is the State’s sole   duty to facilitate the free operation of this law. 25 58$6,4*,895*0(2685.8,9909 underwritten by evolution “/,$/"001%"/"#,/"&0+,1+ &!"+121 +" "00&16+01"!,# &3&)...
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This document was uploaded on 03/02/2014 for the course STS 009 at MIT.

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