Tokugawa Japan (text) - Tokugawa Japan Background...

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Tokugawa Japan: Background, Establishment, and Middle Years Japan drew on Chinese models mediated through Korea Blending the imported and the native for over a millennium Under Tokugawa: peace, economic growth, vibrant urban culture, intellectual life Unification (1573-1600) Japan – only East Asian state experience the rise to dominance of a warrior class Bushi or samurai : warriors that belonged to a hierarchy bounded by vassalage and the shogun (hereditary leader) Shogun: military power, whose legitimacy came from the emperor Bakufu : shogun’s government where he administered his affairs Emperor: traced his descent to the Sun Goddess and retained an aura of sanctity Held court in Kyoto Aristocracy: attended the emperor and set standards of refined culture Kamakura Shogunate (1185-1333): first bakufu Ashiaga Shogunate (1336-1573): succeeded Kamakura Warfare (1467-1573): feudal lords ( daimyo ) used their vassal samurai to preserve/enlarge their domains ( han ) small states centered around castle-towns (samurai concentrated in castle-towns & supported by stipends from daimyo ) fragmentation of Japan increased civilization within the individual domain Restoration of central authority – controlling the daimyo but not eliminating them Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582): controlled 1/3 of Japan by the time of death Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-1598): invader of Korea, born a peasant but rose to become one of Nobunaga’s generals Relocated his own vassals – placed trusted in strategic positions Left wives & children with Hideyoshi as hostages to demonstrate loyalty By 1590, all daimyo swore oaths of loyalty overlord of Japan Intent on suppressing the daimyo but did not want to eliminate them
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Ensured their subordination but policies strengthened the daimyo locally in relation to their warriors & farmers “Sword hunt,” 1588: ordered all peasants to surrender their weapons – used metal to build great statue of Buddha Class-separation edicts, 1591: prohibited warriors from becoming peasants/townsmen, peasants from becoming merchants/artisans (vise-versa) Sword confiscation & implementation of class-separation edicts was up to the local daimyo – determined compliance based on local conditions Land survey (1582-1598): assess cultivated lands in terms of average annual productivity (measured in koku of rice) Holdings of each daimyo was calculated in terms of value (not acreage) International ambitions Interest in overseas trade Suppressed pirates/freebooters who plagued Chinese & Korean coasts 1590s, demanded submission of the Philippines by its Spanish governor Planned to conquer China & India – attempt to satisfy land hunger of his vassals/find employment for restive samurai Tokugawa Ieyasu: strongest daimyo , became shogun in 1603 – confirmed hegemony he established at the battle of Sekigahara in 1600 effective beginning of Tokugawa Shogunate Consolidation of the Tokugawa Order (1600-1651) Ieyasu structured Tokugawa political system to give Japan 3.5 centuries of peace
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