China- Internal Crises and Western Intrusion (text)

China- Internal Crises and Western Intrusion (text) - China...

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China: Internal Crises and Western Intrusion Opium – spread through corrupt officials and drug-addicted bannermen Over-population issues: 300 million (from beginning of 19 th century) 430 million by 1850 No comparable increase in productivity or resources Government neglect of public works Emperor Jiaqing: tried to remedy the government’s financial problems (cut costs, sold official posts and titles) but failed Emperor Daoguang: continued father’s policy of frugality but also failed The Opium War (1839-1844) and Its Causes Macartney mission in Beijing, 1793: tried initiate treaty relations Emperor Qianlong saw no merit in the British request for representation in Beijing nor did he favor increased trade Amherst mission to China, 1816: not granted an audience at court British motives for trade: tea East India Company: enjoyed a monopoly of trade with China until 1834 1/10 of British government’s revenue came from a tax on Chinese tea Exploited “country trade” between India and China: money obtained in Canton by the “country traders” was put on deposit there for the Company against bills of exchange on London disclaimed responsibility for the illegal traffic in China Imperial edict to prohibit opium in 1729 but consumption continued to increase Wide use among soldiers and government underlings 1820s, 30s, large amounts of silver flowed out of China to pay for opium imports Copper coins needed to buy silver destabilized Qing monetary system 1834, Company’s monopoly of the China trade was abolished by British government Opened the gates of trade increased flow of opium to China & increased flow of silver out of China Lord Napier: First Superintendent of Trade, instructed to establish direct contact with
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the Qing viceroy to protect British rights and to assert jurisdiction over Englishmen in Canton Did not wait in Macao for permission to proceed to Canton & wrote letter instead of a petition China retaliates 1834, all Chinese employees were withdrawn from the British community, food was cut off, and trade was stopped Lin Zexu: 1839, led successful campaign against Chinese dealers and consumers Prosecuted opium dealers and addicts (imprisonment & executions) wholesale price of opium dropped Appealed to Queen Victoria
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