Foundations, Traditions, Commonalities (text)

Foundations, Traditions, Commonalities (text) - Foundations...

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Foundations, Traditions, Commonalities Korea, and Japan adopted from Chinese civilization and adapted them to form very different civilizations Maintained own patterns and systems while looking to Chinese antiquity Geographical Parameters China: Complex political organization, cities first appear in China – separated by oceans, mountains, deserts, steppes During formative years, neighbors were illiterate tribal people, or had cultures that derived from China China Proper/”Inner China”: South of the Great Wall, where soil & climate were suitable for agriculture Division between north and south along Qinling Mountains & Huai River North: Temperate climate, cold winters, warm summers, scarce rainfall Thick layers of fertile loess retain moisture Suitable for millet, sorghum ( gialiang) , wheat and beans, soybeans Yellow River: Flooding (1851-1855) – mouth shifted from south side of Shandong Peninsula to north side. South: Subtropical climate, abundant rain Minerals drained out of soil Yanzi River: navigable for 1,500 miles to Sichuan – Yanzi Basin and adjoining region proved ideal for rice culture. West River: Flows through mountains, emerging in Canton (Guangzhou) and Hong Kong. Interior of mountains and jungle of Guangxi and Yunnan are home to ethnic minorities pushed into the hills by Chinese settlers.
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Korea & Japan: By 1600, Korea and Japan attain present territorial extent 1/5 of land suitable for agriculture Ocean provides source of nourishment and trade Mountains challenge soldiers & merchants; prevent achievement of political unity/central authority Rice Korea – grown in river valleys and wide coastal plains of west and south Japan – Kinai Plain (Osaka Bay), Nobi plain (Ise Bay), Kanto Plain (Tokyo Bay) Korea: Border defined by Yalu (flowing westward) and Tumen (flowing eastward) rivers Separated from Manchuria by Yalu river and mountains Ever White Mountains: extend the length of the peninsula and divide it into a coastal area on the east and valleys in the west Southwest – farmland North – rich mineral resources, forest, water-power potential Mountains provide a barrier to Chinese immigration Population flow: Korea Manchuria Han dynasty (2 nd cen. BCE), China establishes colonies in the Red River Delta and in Korea – never dominated because of geography & military resistance 17 th century, Koguryo (Korean state) fights off Tang invasion and remain autonomy (except for period of Mongol dominance) By 1600, both Korea and Vietnam send “tribute” in return for gifts – generosity of superior toward an inferior Embassies were a place of trade positive foreign relations Japan: Never threatened by China and had little military/political interference from abroad
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