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NPB Study Guide Midterm 2

Levels of motor control a lower motor control

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Unformatted text preview: emotor cortex;7 motor humunculus - generate commands for voluntary contractions C. The Primary Motor Cortex - the area also has a homunculus mapped on it - certain regions control certain motor functions → great portion devoted to face II. The Skeleton - skeletal muscle network attached to the skeleton → important framework 1. Bone Tissue (Connective Tissue) - find blood vessels inside - strong matrix of connective tissue - we replace all bone in ten years - alter size of bones based on activities A. Compact - strong bone - really dense - makes up shaft and parts of ends of bones B. Spongy - lots of pores - hatched pattern - provides strength;7 relatively light 2. Growth and Remodeling - bones grow significantly during childhood and puberty, don’t lenghten in adulthood - breakdown and growth continues throughout life - bone grows, replaces cartilage on ends - growth plates fuse in adulthood *Marrow: produces red and white blood cells* 3. Organization of the Skeleton A. Axial- “on axis” - skull, spinal column, rib cage, sternum - “middle” of our body B. Appendicular - refers to limbs ( hands, feet, etc) *They rely on each other for jobs: doesn’t protect anything;7 movement of limbs* 4. Skeletal Joints - varying range of mobility A. Synovial - connects bones - lots of movement - most numerous - stabilize joints → connects bones to ligaments → pad of cushion cartilage and lubrication B. Semi- rigid and Rigid - Fibrous ~ joins bones together ~ not much mobility - Cartilaginous ~ fills space between bones ~ spinal column ~ very limited movement * In regards to vertebrate: not much movement/structure;7 between spinal column;7 lots of cushion that alleviates pressure on spinal cord * 5. Contractions Change the Bone Positions Relative to a Joint A. Putting it all Together - typically two muscles control a limb across a joint - antagonists B. In order to move a limb, one muscle group shortens, while other lenghtens - concentric and eccentric - tends to shorten a muscle and make angle smaller → muscle “inside” joint contracts → antagonize with “outside” muscle → relaxes * Muscles have to cooperate to make certain movements * The Cardiovascular System 1 I. Structure and Organization 1. The Cardiovascular System - involved in homeostasis;7 works with other organ systems...
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