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Mexico independence - Mexico independence Mexican War of...

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Mexico independence . Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. The Mexican War of Independence movement was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos, Zambos and Amerindians who sought independence from Spain . The founder and leader of the Mexican Independence movement was Hidalgo y Costilla , the criollo Roman Catholic priest from the small town of Dolores Miguel On August 24, 1821, representatives of the Spanish crown and Iturbide signed the Treaty of Córdoba , which recognized Mexican independence under the terms of the Plan of Iguala , ending three centuries of Spanish colonial rule. The silver-mining sector of the economy (Mexico's primary earner of foreign capital) was located in the areas of the country that saw the most intensive fighting during the war, resulting in long-term devastation to the mining economy that was only repaired slowly and with great difficulty over the course of the nineteenth century. Political instability led to weak economic performance in the early years of the Mexican Republic. Foreign investors, based primarily in Spain, France, and Great Britain, were impatient to recoup their resulting losses, while at the same time the absolutist governments of Spain and France had political reasons to oppose Mexico's independence. Both countries attempted repeated invasions in Mexico in the 1820s, using lost investments as the rationale for war. Though Mexico fought off these invasions at great cost, a great deal of available capital left with its Spanish owners in the anti-Spanish backlash that followed, and Mexico subsequently became known as a poor target for foreign investment. Embargoes of Mexican products in Europe further depressed the possibility of developing an export sector in the economy Mexico's loss of Texas to settlers from the southern United States in 1836-1839, and the invasion and conquest of northern Mexico by the United States in the Mexican- American War of 1846-1848, compounded these difficulties by creating powerful public opposition to U.S. investment in key Mexican industries.
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Faced with political disruptions, civil wars, unstable currency, and the constant threat of banditry in the countryside, most wealthy Mexicans invested their assets the only stable productive enterprises that remained viable: large agricultural estates The seeds of economic modernization were laid under the restored Republic (1867- 76). President Benito Juárez (1857-72) sought to attract foreign capital to finance Mexico's economic modernization. His government revised the tax and tariff structure to revitalize the mining industry, and it improved the transportation and communications infrastructure to allow fuller exploitation of the country's natural resources. The government let contracts for construction of a new rail line northward to the United States , and in 1873 it finally completed the commercially vital Mexico
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