College Composition Notes.odt - College Composition...

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College CompositionConventions of Standard Written EnglishSyntax. A simple sentence consists of a subject and a predicate (verb). A clauseis a subject and a predicate. When it can stand alone it’s anindependent clause: (Bill is a poet). When it can’t stand alone, it’s a dependent (subordinate) clause: (who lives in Madrid). Compound Sentences are two independent clauses joined together by a conjunction (or, and, but, for, so, yet, not). (Bill is a poet and Jane is an architect); (You are very tired so you should go home). A Complex Sentence is made up of an independent clause with one or more dependent clauses: (When I called my parents, they were eating dinner); (She is the one who helped me fix the car when I broke down). The independent clause can be linked by the relative pronouns who, whoever, that or whichto link the dependent clause to the main clause. This creates an adjective clause that is attached to the main clause or can be found in the middle of it: (The professor who teaches the class is German). (People who speak other languages understand other cultures). The independent clause can also be linked by conjunctions to create adverb clauses and other types of clauses. Some of these conjunctions are: before, after, if, because, unless, as. (If we smoke we go outside). (Unless she helps me, I won’t get it done). (She is trilingual because she lived abroad). After eating, I will go back to work). Compound-Complex Sentences– two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. (She studies a lot and she spends a lot of time in the library because she wants to get good grades). Parallelisms– when a word or phrase that is repeated in a sentence functions in the same way in another part of the sentence. It is considered a parallelism because it should not change when it is repeated. (Wrong: You should either go to the store or beginning your homework now). (Right: you should either go to the store or begin your homework now). Some of the conjunctions in which parallelisms should be monitored are: (not only…but also, whether...or, either….or, neither...not,the more...the more, both...and). Some more examples: (Wrong: Whether you decide on staying here or to go there, you will need to tell us soon). (Correct: Whether you decide on staying here or going there, you will need to tell us soon). (Wrong: After you write the letter, collecting the envelopes and addressing them, please send them on). (Correct: After you write the letter, collect the envelopes and address them, please send them on). [Need to have write, collect, and address in the same parallel form].Sentence Boundaries. Comma Splice –incorrect placement of commas: (Wrong: Andy didn’t have any money, he couldn’t go to the show). To correct this, we could put in a semicolon, a conjunction, or start a new sentence. Run-on Sentences– also improperly connects two sentences: (Wrong: Susan is in charge of the department she has a good understanding of how things work). Fragments– in order to avoid fragments, we

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Term
Fall
Professor
N/A
Tags
Writer, Independent Clause, Dependent clause

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