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Unformatted text preview: t for the Red Sea slave trade. The ports
are Massawa, Suakin, and Djibouti.14
The instruments are illustrated in Figure V, which shows the
four distances for Burkina Faso. The ports in each of the four
slave trades are represented by different colored symbols, and the
shortest distances by colored lines. Details of the construction of
the instruments are given in the Appendix.15
The IV estimates are reported in Table IV. The ﬁrst column
reports estimates without control variables, the second column
includes colonizer ﬁxed effects, and the third and fourth columns
include colonizer ﬁxed effects and geography controls. In column
(4), the sample excludes islands and North African countries. 14. For island countries, one cannot reach the ports of the Saharan or Red
Sea slave trades by traveling overland. For these countries I use the sum of the
sailing distance and overland distance.
15. An alternative strategy is to also include the distance from the centroid
to the coast (which is also shown in Figure V) as an additional instrument, since
this distance is part of the total distanc...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course ECON 541 at The University of British Columbia.
- Spring '14