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18. The results are also similar if other measures of ethnic fractionalization
are used. (2) Slave trades weakened and under developed states negative relationship between slave exports and 19th century state
Consistent with slave trades causing long-term political instability weakened and fragmented states undevelopment of political structures (institutions) 166 QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS FIGURE VII
Relationship between Slave Exports and Nineteenth-Century State Development growth between 1960 and 1995. Looking within Africa, Gennaioli
and Rainer (2006) ﬁnd that countries with ethnicities that had
centralized precolonial state institutions today provide more public goods, such as education, health, and infrastructure.
Herbst (1997, 2000) also focuses on the importance of state
development for economic success, arguing that Africa’s poor
economic performance is a result of postcolonial state failure,
the roots of which lie in the underdevelopment and instability of
precolonial polities. Herbst (2000, chaps. 2–4) argues that because
of a lack of signiﬁcant political development during colonial rule,
the limited precolonial political structures continued to exist after
independence.19 As a result, Africa’s postindependence leaders
inherited nation states that did not have the infrastructure
necessary to extend authority and control over the whole country.
Many states were, and still are, unable to collect taxes from
their citizens, and as a result they are also unable to provide a
minimum level of public goods and services.
19. On the continuity between Africa’s precolonial and postcolonial political
systems also see Hargreaves (1969, p. 200)....
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- Spring '14
- Atlantic Slave Trade, slave exports, slave trades