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Lecture 8 Notes

Looking within africa gennaioli and rainer 2006 nd

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Unformatted text preview: n 18. The results are also similar if other measures of ethnic fractionalization are used. (2) Slave trades weakened and under developed states negative relationship between slave exports and 19th century state centralization Consistent with slave trades causing long-term political instability weakened and fragmented states undevelopment of political structures (institutions) 166 QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS FIGURE VII Relationship between Slave Exports and Nineteenth-Century State Development growth between 1960 and 1995. Looking within Africa, Gennaioli and Rainer (2006) find that countries with ethnicities that had centralized precolonial state institutions today provide more public goods, such as education, health, and infrastructure. Herbst (1997, 2000) also focuses on the importance of state development for economic success, arguing that Africa’s poor economic performance is a result of postcolonial state failure, the roots of which lie in the underdevelopment and instability of precolonial polities. Herbst (2000, chaps. 2–4) argues that because of a lack of significant political development during colonial rule, the limited precolonial political structures continued to exist after independence.19 As a result, Africa’s postindependence leaders inherited nation states that did not have the infrastructure necessary to extend authority and control over the whole country. Many states were, and still are, unable to collect taxes from their citizens, and as a result they are also unable to provide a minimum level of public goods and services. 19. On the continuity between Africa’s precolonial and postcolonial political systems also see Hargreaves (1969, p. 200)....
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