Lecture 9 Notes

Eversals of fortune many regions which were relavely

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Unformatted text preview: urden reduces contemporaneous produc>vity iogeographic Mechanisms Indirect historical influences •  Diamond, 1997; Olson and Hibbs ,2005 •  Local domes>catable species and ease of agricultural technology diffusion (con>nental axis) give a head start on technology and disease (“guns, germs and steel”) •  Engerman and Sokoloff, 1997, 2002; Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson, 2001, 2002; Easterly and Levine, 2003 •  Effects of crops and germs on the seNlement of European colonizers aRer 1500 •  Ashraf and Galor, 2011 •  Timing of agricultural transi>on as key channel for geographic effects (geography as IV) eversals of Fortune Many regions which were rela>vely rich in 1500 are now rela>vely poor (and vice versa) Different channels may have oppositely- signed effects •  Engerman and Sokoloff, 1997, 2002 •  La>n- American regions were mopressure for lactase persistence (LP). LP allows people to digest raw milk as adults, and probably increases the value of dairy farming. LP+Dairying spread over northern and western Europe, as well as parts of the middle east and Africa. Most individuals in the rest of the world remain lactose intolerant. Unclear how much of the spread is a result of parallel evolu>on vs. migra>on/displacement vs. gene>c mixing. Taxonomy of Transmission echanisms Direct Effects •  Inter- genera>onally transmiNed trait directly affects produc>vity •  Must exhibit high persistence/slow change to link outcomes over thousands of years Barrier Effects •  Historical differences may create barriers to communica>on, trade, trust, and technological diffusion •  Differences do not need to have any...
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