Lecture 1 Notes

8 to 411 8 poverty reduction has been accompanied by

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Unformatted text preview: ompanied by rise in inequality: between 1990 and 2004 -- share of national consumption by the poorest decreased from 4.6% to 3.9% Inequality is highest in Latin America, the Caribbean, and in SubSaharan Africa poorest fifth of people account for only 3% of national consumption 9 10 UNITED NATIONS Poverty reduction has been accompanied by rising inequality Share of poorest quintile in national consumption, 1990 and 2004 (Percentage) TARGET Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. Child hunger is declining in all regions, but meeting the target will require accelerated progress Latin America & the Caribbean 2.8 2.7 Sub-Saharan Africa 3.4 1990 3.4 2004 Proportion of children under age five who are underweight, 1990 and 2005 (Percentage) Eastern Asia 7.1 Southern Asia 4.5 53 Western Asia 46 5.9 Sub-Saharan Africa 5.4 33 South-Eastern Asia 29 6.2 South-Eastern Asia 6.1 39 CIS 28 7.9 Northern Africa 6.2 10 Northern Africa 1990 8 6.2 2005 Latin America & the Caribbean 6.3 11 Southern Asia 7 7.2 Western Asia 6.7 11 Transition countries of South-Eastern Europe 7 8.3 Eastern Asia 7.8 19 Developing regions 7 4.6 Developing regions 3.9 33 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 27 9.0 0.0 The benefits of economic growth in the developing world have been unequally shared, both within and among countries. Between 1990 and 2004, the share of national consumption by the poorest fifth of the population in developing regions decreased from 4.6 to 3.9 per cent (in countries where consumption figures were unavailable, data on income were used). Widening income inequality is of particular concern in Eastern Asia, where the share of consumption among the poorest people declined dramatically during this period. Still, inequality remains the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean and in sub-Saharan Africa, where the poorest fifth of the people account for only about 3 per cent of national consumption (or income). 8 10 20 30 40 50 60 Globally, the proportion of children under five who are underweight declined by one fifth over the period 1990-2005. Eastern Asia showed the greatest improvement and is surpassing the MDG target, largely due to nutritional advances in China. Western Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean have also demonstrated significant progress, with underweight prevalence dropping by more than one third. The greatest proportions of children going hungry continue to be found in Southern Asia and subSaharan Africa. Poor progress in these regions means that it is unlikely that the global target will be met. If current trends continue, the world will miss the 2015 target by 30 million children, essentially robbing them of their full potential. 9 Goal 2 - Achieve universal primary education 11 THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2007 UNITED NATIONS Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education TARGET Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Sub-Saharan Africa is making progress towards universal enrolment, but has a long way to go Total net enrolment ratio in primary education,* 1990/1991, 1998/1999 and 2004/2005 (Percentage) Sub-Saharan Africa 54 1991 57 1999 70 2005 Oceania 75 81 78 The net enrolment ratio in primary education in the developing regions increased to 88 per cent in the school year 2004/2005, up from 80 per cent in 1990/1991. Two thirds of the increase occurred since 1999. Although sub-Saharan Africa has made significant progress over the last few years, it still trails behind other regions, with 30 per cent of its children of primary school age out of school. A strong push will be needed over the next few years to enrol all children in school and to fulfil their right to a quality education. primary school age in rural areas of the developing world are out of school, compared with 18 per cent of children in the same age group living in cities. Girls are still excluded from education more often than boys, a pattern that is particularly evident in Western and Southern Asia. Girls and children from poorer or rural families are least likely to attend school Net school attendance in primary school by children of official age and by children of secondary school age in all developing regions, 2005 (Percentage) 100 90 Children of primary school age out of school, by sex, place of residence and household wealth, 2005 (Percentage) 80 83 Boys 80 70 Girls 60 40 Western Asia 37 35 81 One child in five who is old enough to attend secondary school is still enrolled in primary school 50 40 85 31 30 86 CIS, Europe 31 30 20 25 21 25 91 17 10 83 20 Southern Asia 15 20 20 90 74 90 5 South-Eastern Asia 94 0 92 94 Boys Girls Urban Rural Richest Fourth 20% Third Second Poorest 20% CIS, Asia 89 93 94 Eastern Asia 99 99 95 Northern Africa 82 90 95 Latin America & the Caribbean 87 94 97 Developing regions Children of primary school age attending primary school Children of secondary school age attending primary school 12 10 81 0 18 17 Progress has been made in reducing the number of children out of school. Still, the number is unacceptably high. Based on enrolment data, about 72 million children of primary school age were not in school in 2005; 57 per cent of them were girls. As high as t...
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