For 20 countries in sub saharan africa south asia and

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Unformatted text preview: ng into account the circumstances in each country—such as the share of nonagricultural employment as a percentage of total employment. A favorable score on this indicator might, on the surface, seem to indicate equitable conditions for women in labor markets, but it may capture conditions for only a very small proportion of the total labor force (see the following section for a discussion of the limitations of this indicator).16 118 105-148_GMRch3.indd 118 105-148_GMRch3.indd 118 Like the education indicators, the average share in nonagricultural wage employment also conceals inequalities within countries. In several countries of Latin America, indigenous and Afro-descendent women, who have significantly fewer years of education than other women, are also less likely to be employed in nonagricultural paid employment (figure 3.8). For example, nearly 60 percent of all women engaged in nonagricultural paid work in Bolivia in 2002 were nonindigenous, a percentage that far exceeds the population share of nonindigenous women. Duryea and Genoni (2004) find that in Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, and Peru, indigenous and Afro-descendant women are overrepresented in low-paying and informal jobs. The fourth official MDG3 indicator is the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (with no set target). Between 1990 and 2005 all regions except Europe and Central Asia saw an increase in the propor- GLOBAL MONITORING REPORT 2007 4/2/07 6:42:01 PM 4/2/07 6:42:01 PM Goal 4 - Reduce child mortality 15 THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2007 UNITED NATIONS Goal 4 Reduce child mortality TARGET Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate Child survival rates show slow improvement, and are worst in sub-Saharan Africa Under-five mortality rate per 1,000 live births, 1990 and 2005 Recent surveys show that substantial improvements are possible, though disparities were found in the countries studied. Even in countries that have made good progress (i.e., that have seen a drop of at least 15 per cent in child mortality rates between 1998 and 2004), different patterns are observed. Survival rates have improved at all ages within the five-year span, but in some countries gains were most pronounced during certain periods – for example, in the vulnerable first month of life. Evidence from the latest surveys will be further studied to determine the key interventions necessary to reduce mortality during the various stages of a child’s early life. Changes in the levels of child mortality also show wide differentials according to socio-economic status. In most countries that have made substantial reductions in child mortality in recent years, the largest changes were observed among children living in the richest 40 per cent of households, or in urban areas, or whose mothers have some education. Sub-Saharan Africa 185 In countries where progress is lagging or where child mortality has increased, AIDS is likely to be a major contributing factor. Malaria, too, continues to kill vast numbers of children. In other countries, war and conflict have been the leading causes of increasing child mortality in the recent past. 166 Southern Asia 126 82 CIS, Asia Vaccinations spur decline in measles and expansion of basic health services 81 72 Percentage of children 12-23 months old who received at least one dose of measles vaccine, 1990 and 2005 (Percentage) Oceania 80 63 Western Asia Oceania 68 70 55 63 South-Eastern Asia Sub-Saharan Africa 78 57 1990 41 64 2005 Northern Africa Measles is one of the leading causes of child death among diseases that can be prevented by vaccines. Globally, deaths from measles fell by over 60 per cent between 2000 and 2005 – a major public health success. According to the latest data available, the number of these deaths dropped from 873,000 in 1999 to 345,000 in 2005. The most striking gains were found in Africa, where measles deaths decreased by nearly 75 per cent over the same period – from an estimated 506,000 to 126,000. 1990 Southern Asia 2005 88 57 35 65 Latin America & the Caribbean South-Eastern Asia 54 72 31 80 Eastern Asia Eastern Asia 48 98 27 87 CIS, Europe These achievements are attributed to improved immunization coverage throughout the developing world, as well as immunization campaigns that supplement routine services. While coverage stagnated between 1990 and 1999, immunization has rapidly gained ground since 2000. In sub-Saharan Africa, coverage dipped to 49 per cent in 1999 and increased again to 64 per cent by the end of 2005. This was largely the result of advocacy and support provided by the international Measles Initiative – which targeted 47 priority countries – together with the commitment of the African governments involved. Western Asia 27 80 17 Routine measles immunization serves as a proxy indicator for access to basic health services among children under five. Accelerated activities to control measles are contributing to the develop...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course ECON 541 at The University of British Columbia.

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