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Lecture 1 Notes

However the total number of new cases was still

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Unformatted text preview: ions 31 22 16 Developing regions 367 321 255 While the incidence of tuberculosis increased dramatically in sub-Saharan Africa and in countries of the CIS throughout the1990s, it had levelled off in both regions by 2005. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 The global tuberculosis epidemic appears to be on the threshold of decline as incidence has begun to stabilize. However, progress is not fast enough to reach additional targets set by the Stop TB Partnership – to halve prevalence and death rates by 2015 (from 1990 levels). Based on recent progress, subSaharan Africa and the CIS are least likely to reach these new targets. 21 Goal 7 - Ensure environmental sustainability Half of the developing world is without basic sanitation Nearly half of the world’s population live in cities One out of three urban dwellers live in slum conditions lacking at least one of the basic conditions: decent housing adequate sanitation clean water supply In countries such as Chad, the Central African Republic and Ethiopia four out of five urban dwellers live in slums 22 THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2007 UNITED NATIONS – from 335 million in 1990 to 440 million people by the end of 2004. This number may increase even further if trends do not improve. The health, economic and social repercussions of open defecation, poor hygiene and lack of safe drinking water are well documented. Together they contribute to about 88 per cent of the deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases – more than 1.5 million – in children under age five. Infestation of intestinal worms caused by open defecation affects hundreds of millions of predominantly school-aged children, resulting in reduced physical growth, weakened physical fitness and impaired cognitive functions. Poor nutrition contributes to these effects. As the intensity of infection increases, academic performance and school attendance decline substantially. Intestinal worms can also lead to anaemia, which, for girls, increases the risks later of complications in childbirth. Already, nearly half the world’s population live in cities in towns. But due to urban migration and rapid population growth, the number of urban dwellers will continue to expand, from 3.2 billion people today to nearly 5 billion by 2030, with most of the growth taking place in Africa and Asia. TARGET To improve the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020 In 2005, one out of three urban dwellers was living in slum conditions – that is, lacking at least one of the basic conditions of decent housing: adequate sanitation, improved water supply, durable housing or adequate living space. Even if the growth rate of slum dwellers decreases, the rapid expansion of urban areas will make it challenging to improve living conditions quickly enough to meet the target. The rapid expansion of cities is making slum improvements even more daunting Urban population living in slums conditions, 1990, 2001 and 2005 (Percentage) Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia are still the regions where lack of adequate shelter among urban populations is most acute. Looking beyond the regional averages, the situation is even more discouraging. In countries including Chad, the Central African Republic and Ethiopia, four out of five urban dwellers live in slums. In most of Asia and in Latin America, where the majority of urban dwellers have access to improved water and sanitation, slum conditions are characterized mainly by overcrowding and makeshift shelters. The non-durability of housing, in fact, is a problem for an estimated 117 million people living in cities of the developing world. Over half of these people live in Asia; Northern Africa has the fewest people living in non-durable housing. In 2005, about one fifth of the urban population in the developing world lived in overcrowded houses (with more than three persons sharing a bedroom); two thirds of them were in Asia, with half in Southern Asia. 72 72 62 Southern Asia 64 59 43 Eastern Asia 41 36 37 South-Eastern Asia 37 28 28 1990 Latin America & the Caribbean 2001 35 2005 32 27 Oceania 25 24 24 Western Asia 26 26 24 Northern Africa 38 28 15 Developing regions 47 43 37 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Note: The decrease in the percentage of populations living in slum conditions is due in large part to a change in the definition of adequate sanitation. In 2005, only a proportion of households using pit latrines were considered slum households, whereas in 1990 and 2001 all households using pit latrines were counted as slum households. The change affects estimates mostly in those countries where the use of pit latrines is more widespread, as in Sub-Saharan Africa. 26 27 Notes from “Economic Lives of the Poor” (Banerjee and Duflo) Extremely poor = living on less than $1 per day per person Poor = living on less than $2 per day per person Looking at household level data from Asia, Africa and Latin America Characterize the poor 24 142 Journal of Economic Perspectives Table 1 Description of Data Sets Households (HHs) living on less than $1.08 per person per day Source...
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