Improvements were most evident in kenya in urban

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Unformatted text preview: ehensive and correct knowledge of HIV. In most countries, stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV further discourage many from taking an HIV test and disclosing their status to sexual partners. According to recent surveys in a dozen of the worstaffected countries in Africa, the median percentages of men and women who had been tested and received the results were only 12 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Malaria-control efforts are paying off, but additional effort is needed Care of orphans is an enormous social problem, which will only get worse as more parents die of AIDS In 2005, an estimated 15.2 million children had lost one or both parents to AIDS, 80 per cent of them in sub-Saharan Africa. By 2010, the figure is likely to rise to more than 20 million. Several countries are making progress in providing a minimum package of services for orphans and vulnerable children, including education, health care, and social welfare and protection. But far more work is needed to provide a humane and comprehensive response to this unprecedented social problem. Around $3 billion are needed worldwide – $2 billion for Africa alone – to fight malaria in countries hardest hit by the disease. International funding for malaria control has risen more than tenfold over the past decade, but the amount available in 2004 was still only around $600 million. Proportion of children sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets in selected countries, 1999-2006 (Percentage) 40 Number of tuberculosis cases per 100,000 population (excluding people who are HIV-positive), 1990, 2000 and 2005 Sub-Saharan Africa 331 482 490 Oceania 590 23 2002-2004 22 2005-2006 20 15 15 The incidence of tuberculosis is levelling off globally, but the number of new cases is still rising 457 341 Southern Asia 531 427 13 290 10 Number of new tuberculosis cases per 100,000 population (excluding people who are HIV-positive), 1990-2005 7 7 5 4 0 Senegal 485 337 274 Developed regions 300 Rwanda Southern-Eastern Asia 4 3 2 1 Malawi Ghana Key interventions to control malaria have been expanded in recent years, thanks to increased attention and funding. A number of African countries, for example, have widened coverage of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), which are among the most effective tools available for preventing the mosquito bites that cause malaria. Preliminary results from household surveys conducted in 2005-2006 show that many other countries are advancing on the bed net front as well, though final results will only be available later this year. Still, only a few countries came close to the 2005 target of 60 per cent coverage set at the African Summit on Roll Back Malaria in 2000. A strengthened commitment from all concerned is needed if countries are to reach the revised target of 80 per cent ITN use by 2010. Countries will also need to ensure that coverage is more equitable. In sub-Saharan Africa, only 5 per cent of children under five sleep under insecticide-treated bed nets. And in rural areas of countries where malaria is endemic, the burden of malaria is often highest and ITN coverage lowest. According to the most recent surveys of 30 African countries (conducted from 2000 to 2006), children under five living in urban areas were nearly 2.5 times as likely to be sleeping under an insecticide-treated net as their rural counterparts. Developing regions (excluding sub-Saharan Africa) Eastern Asia 319 Sub-Saharan Africa 250 To meet the MDG target, the most effective treatment for malaria must also be made available to those in need. A significant proportion of the nearly 40 per cent of children with fever in sub-Saharan Africa who received anti-malarial drugs were treated with chloroquine, which has lost some of its effectiveness due to widespread resistance. A number of African countries have shifted their national drug policies to encourage the use of 20 Reaching global targets for tuberculosis control will require accelerated progress, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and the CIS 1999-2000 23 Zambia In 2005, only 11 per cent of pregnant women in lowand middle-income countries who were HIV-positive were receiving services to prevent the transmission of the virus to their newborns. artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). But to get these medicines to people who could benefit from them will require better forecasting of needs and improved management of procurement and supplychain processes. TARGET CIS 2000 204 2005 CIS 200 83 163 150 137 Latin America & the Caribbean 100 156 98 50 76 Western Asia 0 1990 1990 267 1995 200 0 92 200 5 63 The incidence of tuberculosis – measured by the number of new cases per 100,000 people – has stabilized or begun to fall in most regions, following earlier downturns in prevalence and mortality. However, the total number of new cases was still rising slowly in 2005 due to population growth. An estimated 8.8 million new tuberculosis cases were reported in 2005, 7.3 million of which were in sub-Saharan Africa and the four Asian regions. A total of 1.6 million people died of tuberculosis in 2005, including 195,000 people infected with HIV. 56 Northern Africa 59 53 44 Developed reg...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course ECON 541 at The University of British Columbia.

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