Lecture 1 Notes

Still the number is unacceptably high based on

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Unformatted text preview: his number seems, surveys show that it underestimates the actual number of children who, though enrolled, are not attending school. Moreover, neither enrolment nor attendance figures reflect children who do not attend school regularly. To make matters worse, official data are not usually available from countries in conflict or post-conflict situations. If data from these countries were reflected in global estimates, the enrolment picture would be even less optimistic. When many children entering school are under or over the official age for enrolment, the net enrolment ratios for primary school do not accurately reflect the situation of children in school. Surveys indicate that attendance by over-age children is very common, especially in some regions. In subSaharan Africa, for example, more children of secondary school age are attending primary school than secondary school. Though late enrolment is better than not enrolling at all, it represents a challenge for the education system and reflects the difficulties families face in sending their children to school. Late enrolment also puts children at a disadvantage by causing potential learning problems and lessening opportunities to advance to a higher level of education. Where the information is available, data show that children who start school at least two years later than the official age are more likely to be from poorer households and have mothers with no formal education. 80 The children most likely to drop out of school or to not attend at all are those from poorer households or living in rural areas. For example, nearly a third of children of 83 88 0 10 20 40 60 80 100 *Number of pupils of the theoretical school-age group for primary education, enrolled either in primary or secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. 11 Girls and children from poor and rural families are least likely to attend school One child in five who is old enough to attend secondary school is still enrolled in primary school 13 PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT FIGURE 3.4 Trends in gender parity in enrollment and literacy rates, 1990 and 2005 Ratio of girls to boys 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 Sub-Saharan Africa 1990 2005 Female to male ratio 1.0 East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Primary enrollment Latin America & Caribbean Secondary enrollment Fragile states Middle East & North Africa South Asia Tertiary enrollment Literacy Nonfragile states 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 Secondary Tertiary Primary enrollment enrollment enrollment Literacy 1990 Primary Secondary Tertiary enrollment enrollment enrollment Literacy 2005 Source: World Bank Indicators (top); World Development Indicators 2006 (bottom). Note: The regional averages are calculated using the earliest value between 1990 and 1995 and the latest value between 2000 and 2005 for each country. The averages are weighted by the country population size in 2005. In the second figure, trend is shown for countries that were fragile states in the 2000–05 period. For fragile states, data are available for 25 countries for primary enrollment, 22 for secondary enrollment, 8 for tertiary enrollment, and 13 for literacy. For nonfragile comparator countries, corresponding sample sizes are 36, 31, 21, and 25. GLOBAL MONITORING REPORT 2007 105-148_GMRch3.indd 113 105-148_GMRch3.indd 113 113 4/2/07 6:42:00 PM 4/2/07 6:42:00 PM Goal 3 - Promote gender equality and empower women Reflects strong belief that redressing gender disparities and empowering women is an important development objective on the grounds of both fairness and efficiency Compelling evidence that gender equality and women’s empowerment are channels to attaining other millennium development goals: universal primary education (Goal 2) lower under-five mortality (Goal 4) improved maternal health (Goal 5) lower likelihood of contracting HIV/AIDS (Goal 6) 14 CHAPTER 3 FIGURE 3.7 Progress in share of women in nonagricultural wage employment and proportion of seats in parliament held by women, by region Percentage of women 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sub-Saharan Africa East Asica & Pacific 2005 1990 Europe & Central Asia Latin America & Caribbean Middle East & North Africa South Asia Proportion seats held by women in parliament Share of women in nonagriculture wage employment Source: World Development Indicators 2006. The regional averages are calculated using the earliest value between 1990 and 1995 and the latest value between 2000 and 2005 for each country. The averages are weighted by the country population size in 2005. rural low-income countries (30 percent). In 15 countries, mostly in Europe and Central Asia, women dominated nonagricultural wage work. Women also dominated this work in Cambodia, Honduras, and Vietnam— countries where recent growth in exportoriented manufacturing industries increased the demand for female workers. For 20 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Middle East and North Africa, women’s share was below 20 percent. Trends and patterns in this indicator are difficult to interpret without taki...
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This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course ECON 541 at UBC.

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