Lecture 1 Notes

Western asia 27 80 17 routine measles immunization

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: ment of health infrastructure that supports routine immunization and other health services. Moreover, measles vaccination campaigns have become a channel for delivering other life-saving interventions, such as mosquito nets to protect against malaria, de-worming medicine and vitamin A supplements. 91 Transition countries of South-Eastern Europe Latin America & the Caribbean 29 76 17 92 Developing regions Northern Africa 106 85 83 95 Transition countries of South-Eastern Europe 0 50 100 150 200 93 96 Estimates for 2005 indicate that 10.1 million children died before their fifth birthday, mostly from preventable causes. Though infant and child mortality rates have declined globally, the pace of progress has been uneven across regions and countries. Accelerated improvements are needed most urgently in sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia, CIS countries in Asia and in Oceania. Not surprisingly, the lack of progress in child survival has been mirrored by neglect of many basic health services in parts of the developing world. CIS 85 98 Developing regions 71 75 0 14 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 15 Goal 5 - Improve maternal health Half a million women continue to die each year during pregnancy or childbirth. Almost all of them in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia 17 THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2007 UNITED NATIONS Goal 5 Improve maternal health TARGET Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio Half a million women continue to die each year during pregnancy or childbirth, almost all of them in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia A number of middle-income countries have made rapid progress in reducing maternal deaths. Nevertheless, maternal mortality levels remain unacceptably high across the developing world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Each year, more than 500,000 women die from treatable or preventable complications of pregnancy and childbirth. In sub-Saharan Africa, a woman’s risk of dying from such complications over the course of her lifetime is 1 in 16, compared to 1 in 3,800 in the developed world. Health-care interventions can reduce maternal deaths, but need to be made more widely available Southern Asia 30 38 1990 42 2005 45 Western Asia 60 Disparities in the support available to women during pregnancy and childbirth are evident both among countries and within them. According to surveys conducted between 1996 and 2005 in 57 developing countries, 81 per cent of urban women deliver with the help of a skilled attendant, versus only 49 per cent of their rural counterparts. Similarly, 84 per cent of women who have completed secondary or higher education are attended by skilled personnel during childbirth, more than twice the rate of mothers with no formal education. 66 South-Eastern Asia For antenatal care to be effective, international experts recommend at least four visits to a trained health-care practitioner during pregnancy. However, in many countries, particularly in Africa, there is a large gap between the proportion of women who receive antenatal care at least once compared to those who receive care four or more times. In Kenya, for example, in 2003, 87 per cent of women received antenatal care at least once, while only 51 per cent received care the recommended four times. Similarly, women in Madagascar were twice as likely to receive antenatal care at least once rather than four or more times. 38 68 Northern Africa 40 75 Eastern Asia 51 83 Latin America & the Caribbean 72 89 CIS 99 No single intervention can address the multiple causes of maternal deaths Causes of maternal deaths, 1997-2002 (Percentage) 40 Haemorrhage Hypertensive disorders Sepsis/infections, including HIV Obstructed labour Anaemia Abortion 26 Other causes* 35 34 31 30 25 25 21 20 Antenatal care has long been recognized as a core component of maternal health services. It can help women identify potential risks and plan for a safe delivery. It also can serve as an entry point into the wider health-care system. Since 1990, every region has made progress in ensuring that women receive antenatal care at least once during their pregnancy. Even in sub-Saharan Africa, where the least progress has occurred, more than two thirds of women receive antenatal care at least one time during pregnancy. Proportion of deliveries attended by skilled health care personnel, 1990 and 2005 (Percentage) Sub-Saharan Africa The vast majority of maternal deaths and disabilities could be prevented through appropriate reproductive health services before, during and after pregnancy, and through life-saving interventions should complications arise. Attendance at delivery by skilled health personnel (doctors, nurses, midwives) who are trained to detect problems early and can effectively provide or refer women to emergency obstetric care when needed is essential. The regions with the lowest proportions of skilled health attendants at birth are Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, which also have the highest numbers of maternal deaths. 16 15 15 13 12 10 9 9 13 12 9 9 8 6 5 4 4 4 0 0 Africa Asia Latin America & the Caribbean *Other c...
View Full Document

This document was uploaded on 02/26/2014 for the course ECON 541 at UBC.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online