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**Unformatted text preview: **ims with dark clothing, divided by the proportion without, should be pd/(1- p)l. The ratio of the observed proportion is 0.8/0.2, so we may conclude that pd/(1- p)l is in the vicinity of 0.8/0.2. In order to conclude that lighter clothes are safer than darker – that is, to conclude that l is less than d – we must also have that p/(1- p) is not greater than 0.8/0.2 (that the proportion in the population wearing dark clothes was not 0.8 or more). Strictly speaking, we cannot ever really reach the conclusion as a matter of logic. The 0.8 is but a summary statisti...

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